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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of spalling and cracking of oxide scale. It ends with a section providing information on oxidation behaviors under less-oxidizing atmospheres. oxidation stainless steel spalling cracking chromium oxide Wagner theory References 1. Birks N. , Meier G.H...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract This chapter describes the characteristic damage of a mid-air explosion and how it appears in metal debris recovered from crash sites of downed aircraft. It explains that explosive forces produce telltale signs such as petaling, curling, spalling, spikes, reverse slant fractures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...-origin fatigue, subcase-origin fatigue (spalling fatigue), and cavitation fatigue. abrasive wear adhesive wear cavitation fatigue contact-stress fatigue erosion-corrosion erosive wear fretting wear gouging grinding WEAR IS USUALLY DEFINED as the undesired removal of material from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
..., fretting, scuffing, and spalling and introduces the concepts of tribocorrosion and biotribology. abrasive wear adhesive wear erosion fretting corrosion fretting wear impact wear rolling wear tribocorrosion References 1. Banks B.A. et al. , “ Low Earth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in spalling that acts as a stress-relief mechanism; in some cases, the protection offered by such scales may be low at this point, as shown in Fig. 5 . Fig. 5 Cr 2 O 3 scale formed on pure chromium at 1100 °C (2012 °F). A Pilling-Bedworth ratio of 2.0 results in high compressive stress in the scale...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of ferritic stainless more closely matches that of the oxide scale than does that of austenite. This prevents the fracturing and spalling of the scale. The intact scale of ferritic stainless is thus protective up to the temperature at which oxygen diffusion through the scale becomes great enough so...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... cracking and spalling, volatile oxides, and molten oxidation products, the oxidation rate generally remains constant with increasing time. The linear oxidation kinetic rate can be expressed by: (3.11) X = k l t where X is the mass (or thickness) of the oxide, t is the exposure time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of damage in conventional bearing steels from contact fatigue involves micropitting, macropitting, and spalling ( Fig. 16.10 ). In hybrid ceramics coatings and overlay coatings, the damage typically involves delamination ( Fig. 16.11 ). Factors influencing contact fatigue life of hardened steel bearings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... fatigue may be more of an issue than wear. Spalling from surface fatigue caused by repeated rolling contact can lead to rail fractures and derailments ( Fig. 8.6 ). Some tracks are locally flame hardened where spalling is evident, and in some places alloy steels containing manganese (13% Mn) are put...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
.../cobalt binder Chromium carbide Aluminum oxide These coatings are thicker than vacuum coatings and are appropriate in tribosystems that can tolerate several micrometers of wear. Thermal spray coatings are mechanically bonded to a surface, and they can spall if mistakes are made...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... coating performance continue to occur in the field. As suggested previously, one of the facts of oxide formation is that the oxide scales on superalloys are subject to spalling, owing to severe thermal stresses induced by the cyclic nature of most heat engine operations. Superalloys rarely operate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
.... The general term contact stress fatigue is where the fractures cause pieces of metal to separate from the surface, leaving cavities, or pits, in the surface. Contact stress fatigue is covered in this chapter as: Subsurface-origin fatigue Surface-origin fatigue Subcase-origin fatigue (“spalling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... The hard surface layers and the soft core will generally be separated by a cushion layer of bainite that helps in reducing cracking and spalling. In addition to the hard surface, the surface layer is usually in a state of compression, which improves fatigue cracking resistance. The surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... ≥ n ( AW ) M / ρ M The equation is not satisfied for sodium, potassium, alkali, and the alkaline earth metals, so they oxidize rapidly in air. If the ratio [(MW) oxide /ρ oxide ]/[n(AW) M /ρ M ] is too high, the compressive stresses in the oxide may cause it to spall off...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.9781627082709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of exposure at elevated temperatures. The higher the temperature and the longer the soaking time, the more the outer layer, which consisted of magnetite and hematite, became porous and susceptible to spalling. The normal steam velocity was sufficient to knock out the scale. Slight fluctuation in the steam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... and can cause a material to yield, crack, spall, or buckle (Ref 5) . Linear thermal expansion ( Table 2 ) in going from room temperature to 700 °C (1300 °F) is approximately: 10.3 mm/m (0.124 in./ft) for low-alloy steel 8.5 mm/m (0.102 in./ft) for martensitic stainless steel (type 13Cr...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., spalling, and other problems. The controllers with kilowatt-second monitoring windows may not pick up degradation of coils that are deteriorated enough to cause a difference in the hardened pattern. This is because the kilowatt-seconds shown on the meter is the total of the delivered power required to heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... of hydrogen into the metal is relatively slow, and the thickness of the layer of titanium hydride formed on the surface rarely exceeds about 0.4 mm (0.015 in.) because spalling takes place when the hydride layer reaches thicknesses in this range. Hydride particles form much more rapidly at temperatures...