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solute redistribution

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract Many of the structural characteristics of steel products are a result of changes that occur during solidification, particularly volume contractions and solute redistribution. This chapter discusses the solidification process and how it affects the quality and behaviors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... growing have chemical compositions that are not the same as that of the vanishing phase, solute will have to move and redistribute between the phases. Thus, on a qualitative basis, phase transformations are dominated by the balance among the driving force available to create interfaces, counteracting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...-Hill Book Company , 1974 10.1007/BF02643923 9.41 Brody H.D. and Flemings M.C. , Solute Redistribution in Dendritic Solidification , Trans. AIME , Vol 236 , 1966 , p 615 – 624 9.42 Fisher R.M. , Speich G.R. , Cuddy L.J. , and Hu H. , Proceedings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... indicated by the high-order Fe-C-alloying elements phase diagram. Negligible partition (of the substitutional solutes) with thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface (NPLE, negligible partition, local equilibrium). In this case, reconstruction happens without a significant redistribution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... and resolidification, issues associated with solute redistribution are eliminated. The relatively low temperatures involved essentially eliminate generation of weld fume (see the discussion of safety). Other new welding processes, such as multiple (GTA or GMA) torch welding, laser-assisted GMA or GTA welding, etc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... the collapse and healing of void surfaces formed by hydrogen precipitation during solidification. At elevated temperatures and under increased pressure, precipitated hydrogen in excess of the solubility limit is compressed and repartitioned, or redistributed, resulting in increased structural density...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... with a water solution of picric acid with a surfactant agent (sodium tridecyl benzene sulfonate), proportions not informed (reactant is similar to Bechet-Beaujard). As in the case of Oberhoffer etchant ( Fig. 8.38, in Chapter 8, “Solidification, Segregation, and Nonmetallic Inclusions,” in this book...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... can be either isotropic or orthotropic. The local stresses in the vicinity of the hole have been raised above the nominal level due to redistribution of load paths. The problem also involves whether the hole is inside a sheet of infinite width, or finite width, and whether or not a close-form solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of coarsening increases with temperature. Ostwald ripening is the mechanism by which smaller precipitates dissolve, and the solute is redistributed to larger, stable precipitates. Smaller particles have a higher free energy due to increased pressure as a result of their high surface curvature. Reversion occurs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... through a refractometer and/or viscosity. Figure 15.1 illustrates the viscosity/concentration relationship, with the multiple curves reflecting the flexibility in temperature at which the viscosity determination can be made. Because the viscosity of the quenchant solution is largely independent of other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...; they are not effective for the other sensitizing elements. The most effective of these reagents is a solution of picric acid in ethyl ether saturated with zephiran chloride. An example of the grooves developed by this etchant in an embrittled steel is given in Fig. 10.14(a) , which can be compared with the result...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... The cementite lamellae must first dissolve and then redistribute the carbon as spheroids, whereas cementite spheroids can form directly from martensite. Fig. 11.5 Microstructure of spheroidized steel. Source: Ref 3 Steels are hardened by austenitizing, quenching, and then tempering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... In the initial discussion of phase diagrams in Chapter 2, “Solutions and Phase Diagrams,” the salt-water system was chosen to illustrate the major ideas. Figure 2.2 illustrates that the freezing temperature of water-salt solutions decreases as the percent salt in the liquid increases, but it decreases only...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... and extent of stress redistribution can be made using detailed nonlinear finite-element analysis or can be estimated by simple numerical methods such as those proposed by Bailey ( Ref 65 ). The long-term (i.e., t → ∞) relaxed steady-state stress distributions according to the Bailey solution are given...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... of structural analysis. For handbook solutions, a library of stress formulas is available in Ref 1.6 . This section presents a few simple yet typical cases. The sections that follow present some advanced structural analysis concepts. Because stress analysis procedures are case specific, generalized solutions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of redistribution of carbon atoms in the austenite matrix. Rather, it is accomplished by cooperative movement of atoms by a shear mechanism (i.e., displacement mechanism). Martensite is a supersaturated, interstitial solid solution of carbon in α-iron. It is an extremely hard and brittle phase. The carbon content...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... . Many different methods can be used to determine the elastic stress and strain concentration factors. Among them is the analytical procedure of solving the classic equations of elasticity. It is rare, however, that exact solutions can be obtained. Mostly, they are approximate solutions derived...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... . Fig. 4.19 (Part 1) Quench aging effects in ferrite. Rimming grade. 0.03C-0.005Si-0.43Mn (wt%). This series is continued in Fig. 4.20 . (a) Heated at 800 °C, cooled at 100 °C/h, solution treated at 700 °C for 1 h, water quenched. 105 HV. 1% nital. 250×. (b) Heated at 800 °C, cooled at 100 °C/h...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... to fine-grained steels Refined; excess carbide not dissolved; distortion minimized Unrefined; soft and machinable B: Best adapted to fine-grained steels Slightly coarsened; some solution of excess carbide Partially refined; stronger and tougher than A C: Best adapted to fine-grained steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... or discontinuous yield is mostly associated with the interaction between dislocations and interstitial solutes, such as carbon and nitrogen. The interaction between their stress fields leads, when there is sufficient mobility for the interstitial atoms, to a concentration of these solutes in the region just below...