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solubility

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... diagrams face-centered cubic grain boundaries hexagonal close-packed line defects planar defects point defects solid solution solubility limit volume defects THE BUILDING BLOCK of all matter, including metals, is the atom, which means “unable to be cut” in Greek. The concept of the atom...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... generalized manner. The chapter provides a discussion on the constitution of commercially pure iron, subsequently leading to discussion on the iron-carbon alloy system. The chapter also describes the effect of carbon on the constitution of iron and of the solubility of carbon in iron. It provides information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... heating operations. First, the alloy is heated to a temperature just below (say, at least 28 °C, or 50 °F) its solidus (beginning of melting) temperature. Holding time at temperature depends on the solubility of the various phases and whether the alloy is wrought or cast. It must be considered that the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... for the primary impurities oxygen and sulfur. A third common impurity, phosphorus, is not so easily removed and must be excluded from raw materials to be kept under control. In stainless steel, carbon and nitrogen can be detrimental impurities. Both are quite soluble in molten iron-chromium alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of these systems are completely miscible (completely soluble in each other) in the solid form, thus forming a continuous solid solution. When this occurs in a binary system, the phase diagram usually has the general appearance of that shown in Fig. 4.2 . The diagram consists of two single-phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... allowed in AM60A than in AM60B. Therefore, AM60B has better saltwater corrosion resistance than AM60A. Manganese content in magnesium die-casting alloys varies from one alloy to another, depending on the mutual solubilities of iron and manganese in the presence of other alloying elements. A basic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of alloying elements. In the case of high-temperature superalloys, as many as ten alloying elements may used to obtain the desired performance. The metals nickel and copper completely dissolve in each other in the liquid state and then retain their complete solubility in each other on freezing to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... solubility of nitrogen appreciably. This permitted even higher levels of total alloying to be achieved. This was exploited in the alloys UNS S34565 and S32654, which contain 3 to 6% manganese and about 0.50% nitrogen. The PRENs of these alloys are over 50, which gives them a critical pitting temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...;90% tungsten carbide, balance cobalt). Modification of tungsten carbide tools with the addition of 0.5 to 4% tantalum carbide has been beneficial in improving abrasion resistance. Titanium carbide tools are not applicable for superalloys, because of the high solubility of titanium carbide in nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... temperatures in the liquid melt, molecular hydrogen decomposes into atomic hydrogen that dissolves in the metal. The solubility of hydrogen in liquid metals increases sharply with temperature, as shown in Fig. B.12 for nickel and iron. If the hydrogen is not removed prior to solidification, the large...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... heterogeneous substances.” It received very little notice in the field of science and none in metallurgy. FIG. 4.2 Josiah Willard Gibbs developed the theory for systems that were not mutually soluble, that is, that had more than one phase present at equilibrium. However, a generation later, Dutch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... eutectic system with limited terminal solubility and is the basis for the 4 xx.x alloys. Metallographic structures of the pure components and of several intermediate compositions show typical morphologies. The intermediate compositions are mixtures of aluminum containing ~1% Si in solid solution as the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...) iron. The existence of these two phases, along with carbon alloying, is fundamental in the heat treatment of steel. In addition to the allotropy of iron, the strengthening of steel by heat treatment also depends on the difference in solubility of carbon in ferrite and austenite. Solid solubility is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Predict possible heat treatments . The presence of a solvus line in a phase diagram, which shows decrease of solid solubility (line OD in Fig. 14.1 ) with the decrease of temperature, indicates the chance of using a precipitation-hardening heat treatment. The presence of a eutectoid reaction in a phase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... construction materials, dry-cell battery cans, deep-drawn hardware, address plates, electrical components Zn-Al (superplastic zinc) Shaped components such as typewriter casings, computer panels, and covers Of the eleven elements exhibiting a reasonable level of solubility in zinc, silver and gold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... on the unique properties of specific alloying elements. Because nickel has an extensive solid solubility for many alloying elements, the micro-structure of nickel alloys consists of the fcc solid-solution austenite (γ) in which dispersoid and precipitate particles can form. Nickel forms a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... dissolution reaction: (Eq 18) Fe → Fe 2 + = 2 e − by converting the ferrous iron-ion product (Fe 2+ ) to less soluble ferric (Fe 3+ ). Due to this, macroscopic so-called tubercules form that can cause crevice-type shelters where differential aeration and pit initiation can occur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... primary purpose of producing a homogeneous solid-solution phase of all the chemical constituents. The alloy is heated and held at a temperature to dissolve precipitates. The holding time at temperature depends on the solubility of the various phases and whether the alloy is wrought or cast. Because the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... diagram. Source: Ref 8.2 as published in Ref 8.3 Carbon forms a series of solid solutions with iron, as indicated by the δ, γ, and α fields. However, carbon has very limited solubility in iron. The maximum solubility of carbon in ferrite is only approximately 0.022 wt% at 171 °C (340 °F) that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... Both cases are shown schematically in Fig. 8 . Let us discuss the conditions that promote one or the other of these by starting with a situation in which (a) no surface oxide exists and (b) the oxygen atmosphere is such that the solubility of oxygen within a distance X is enough to thermodynamically...