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solidification structures

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... segregation and inclusions and their effect on the mechanical properties and microstructure of steel. It explains how to identify various types of inclusions and characteristic segregation patterns, such as banding. It also describes the effect of hot work processing on solidification structure and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract The solidification process has a major influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metal casting as well as wrought products. This appendix covers the fundamentals of solidification. It discusses the formation of solidification structures, the characteristics of planar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... solidification structures. It also discusses the morphology of the microstructure produced during directional solidification and the classification criteria of low- and high-dome alloys. copper-lead alloys monotectic alloy systems phase diagrams solidification structures ANOTHER THREE-PHASE...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Fig. 5.4 Crystalline structures on cooling in a eutectic phase diagram Because eutectic alloys have a single melting/solidification point, eutectic compositions include important types of commercial alloys. Traditional lead-tin solder alloys are based on their eutectic compositions. Casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This appendix provides a detailed overview of the crystal structure of metals. It describes primary bonding mechanisms, space lattices and crystal systems, unit cell parameters, slip systems, and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in precipitation structures. As in the case of invariant reactions during solidification, important solid-state transformations from invariant reactions are of three types: Eutectoid transformation , where a solid solution converts into two or more intimately mixed solids with different...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Peritectic reactions or transformations are very common in the solidification of metals. Many interesting alloys undergo these types of reactions—for example, iron-carbon and iron-nickel-base alloys as well as copper-tin and copper-zinc alloys. The formation of peritectic structures can occur by at least...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... liquid phase prior to solidification. Materials that are elastically anisotropic form spinodal structures that are developed preferentially along elastically soft directions. Figure 9.22 illustrates calculated two-dimensional and three-dimensional time developments for the structure of an iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... equilibrium phase. Like solidification, nucleation in solid-state reactions is almost always heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural defects such as grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid-state phase transformation, at least one new phase is normally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... microstructure consists of regions varying from α 1 to α′ 7 , producing a cored microstructure. Fig. 4.10 Coring due to nonequilibrium solidification. Source: Ref 4.5 as published in Ref 4.3 Some systems are comprised of components having the same crystal structure, and the components of some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... the interatomic distances and bond energies are independent of composition. The structure of a binary solid solution is shown schematically in Fig. 3.13 . Three types of interatomic bonds are present: A – A bonds, each with an energy ε AA B – B bonds, each with an energy ε BB...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...-temperature hexagonal close-packed (α) structure. The β transus, defined as the temperature at which α starts to form from β during solidification, is 883 °C (1621 °F) for pure titanium. However, this temperature can vary by several hundred degrees due to the addition of alloying elements. Elements such as...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... selected in order to fix the conditions of equilibrium. The representation of three-phase equilibrium on a phase diagram requires the use of a structural unit that will designate, at any given temperature, the fixed compositions of three conjugate phases. Such a structural unit is found in the tie triangle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the processes involved in alloy production, including melting, casting, solidification, and fabrication. It discusses the effects of alloying on solidification, the formation of solidification structures, supercooling, nucleation, and grain growth. It describes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Engineering metals undergo many transformations in the course of production, none more critical than those that occur during solidification. This chapter discusses the process of solidification and its effects on the structure and properties of cast metals. It describes the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract Many of the structural characteristics of steel products are a result of changes that occur during solidification, particularly volume contractions and solute redistribution. This chapter discusses the solidification process and how it affects the quality and behaviors of steel. It...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the structures, phases, and phase transformations observed in metals and alloys as they solidify and cool to lower temperatures. It begins with a review of the solidification process, covering nucleation, grain growth, and the factors that influence grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... structure of metals and their role in mechanical deformation, annealing, precipitation, and diffusion. It describes the concept of solid solutions and the effect of temperature on solubility and phase transformations. The chapter also discusses the formation of solidification structures, the use of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... growth, while large undercoolings will tend to produce dendritic growth. In pure metals, undercooling can result from thermal supercooling, while in alloys, it can result from a combination of thermal and constitutional supercooling. Fig. 7.1 Effects of undercooling on solidification structures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses bulk deformation processes and how they are used to reshape metals and refine solidification structures. It begins by describing the differences between hot and cold working along with their respective advantages. It then discusses various forging methods...