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solid-state transformation structures

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... approaching the melting point. Instead of transforming directly to the equilibrium phase, metastable transition phases can form prior to forming the final equilibrium phase. Like solidification, nucleation in solid-state reactions is almost always heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... hypoeutectoid structures invariant transformation peritectoid transformation EUTECTOID AND PERITECTOID transformation are classified as solid-state invariant transformations. Invariant transformations are isothermal reversible reactions that occur at an invariant point on the phase diagram of an alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the effects of welding on the structure of metal, particularly the changes induced in the isothermal regions adjacent to the weld. It presents more than 150 images identifying structures and features associated with fusion and solid-state welding processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the relationship between cooling rate, grain size, grain shape, and phase structures. It explains how the transition from liquid to solid state creates the conditions under which microsegregation occurs, and how it impacts the distribution of alloying elements, carbides, and inclusions. The link between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural defects such as grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid-state phase transformation, normally at least one new phase is formed that has different physical/chemical characteristics and/or a different structure than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... greater differences between the elements in a binary alloy, especially with crystal structure, lead to one or more intermediate phases and solid-state transformation. Most titanium systems contain such phases and transformations. Solid-State Transformations Discussions thus far have been concerned...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... decomposition intermediate phases order-disorder transformation spinodal transformation structures superlattice structures PHASE DIAGRAMS are often quite complex, with a number of different reactions occurring at different compositions and temperatures. In most cases, the appearance of several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., normalizing, homogenizing, hardening, austempering, quenching, solution treating, and precipitation hardening. Still other heat treatment processes may involve the solid-state addition of other elements into the atomic structure by diffusion processes such as carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... structure of metals and their role in mechanical deformation, annealing, precipitation, and diffusion. It describes the concept of solid solutions and the effect of temperature on solubility and phase transformations. The chapter also discusses the formation of solidification structures, the use...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
..., a liquid transforms into two solid phases at the same time. When a liquid containing 62% Sn cools, the a and b phases form a eutectic structure of alternating platelets as sketched schematically in Fig. 2.5. In another system, copper and nickel are completely soluble in each other in the liquid state...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... solubility in both the liquid and solid states. Most alloys do not have such simple phase systems. Typically, alloying elements have significant differences in their atomic size and crystalline structure, and so, the mismatch forces the formation of a new crystal phase that can more easily accommodate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... pressure, iron can have two solid crystal structures (BCC or FCC), depending on temperature, and is able to transform into the liquid state (the conditions under which iron is present as a vapor are less interesting to metallurgy). Alloying elements added to iron may help make one or the other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., the system must adhere to the Hume-Rothery rules for solid solutions (see Chapter 2, “Solid Solutions and Phase Transformation,” in this book). In this case, both copper and nickel have the fcc crystal structure, have nearly identical atomic radii and electronegativities, and have similar valences...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... oscillators more efficient through replacement of the tube rectifiers by solid-state diodes. Development of better transformers for load matching will increase the potential use of solid-state RF power supplies. If the past is used as a basis for projection into the future, the probability is that transistors...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... can be gases, liquids, or solids. When they are in the solid state, metals are normally arranged in a crystalline structure. The crystalline nature of metals is responsible for their ultimate engineering usefulness, and the crystalline arrangement strongly influences their processing. Although metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... illustrating capacitor and impedance-matching adjustments when using (a) an autotransformer for high-impedance induction coils and (b) an isolation transformer for low-impedance induction coils Solid-State Inverters With the development of high-power silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR’s) having rapid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... 3.5 shows the cooling curve for pure iron. As shown in this figure, the pure iron isothermally transforms from the liquid to solid state at 1539 °C (2802 °F). From 1539 to 1400 °C (2802 to 2550 °F) δ-iron is present and has a bcc structure. At 1400 °C, the lattice changes from a bcc to an fcc type...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and arrangement of elements in a material of a given chemical composition. A phase is a physically homogeneous state of matter with a given chemical composition and structure. The simplest examples are the three states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) of a pure metal. The three phases of a pure metal have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... eutectic, eutectic alloy, eutectic mixture, eutectic point , and eutectic solutions in the modern concept of transformation by solidification. [3] No reference was made to the equivalent solid-state process to which the term eutectoid is now applied, but it is interesting that a hypereutectic steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... in almost any solid-solution reaction. Fig. 1 Changes in pure iron as it cools from the molten state to room temperature. Source: Ref 3 Pure iron solidifies from the liquid at 1538 °C (2800 °F) (top of Fig. 1 ). A crystalline structure, known as ferrite, or delta iron, is formed (point...