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solid-state transformation structures

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., for a non-steady-state cooling process, the surface temperature for all portions of the surface area of the part are not equal in temperature. When the vapor blanket (full-film boiling) collapses, wetting begins by nucleate boiling due to the influence of lateral heat conduction relative to the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... cast irons. The morphology of graphite developed during solidification of cast irons cannot be altered by solid-state heating, but the transformation of metastable cementite (Fe 3 C) can be altered by heat treatment, much like steel. Like steel, heat treatment of cast iron includes: Stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... elements are allotropic. That is, their structure transforms from one crystal structure to another with changes in temperature and pressure, where each crystal structure is a distinctively separate solid-state phase. For example, both iron and carbon have a number of allotropic forms. Carbon can exist as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... the hypereutectoid steels, with their excess of carbide, enough carbon solid solution occurs at lower temperatures to assure proper hardening, so that for these steels, the general practice is to heat approximately 55 °C above the Ac 1 for oil or polymer quenching and approximately 10 °C (50 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... transformation is so long that the iron-cementite structure is considered to be quasiequilibrium. Equilibrium phase diagrams are an essential tool in understanding the effects of alloy composition, solidification, and solid-state thermal processing on the microstructure of alloys being heat treated, and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...: Adapted from: Ref 1 , in Ref 2 However, one common objective of annealing for many metals and alloys is to soften and restore ductility after cold working. The effect of annealing is to provide thermal activation energy that transforms the material to lower-energy states accompanied by a series...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... easily migrate (diffuse) in the solid state. Table 1 Examples of nonferrous eutectoid compositions in wt% Ag-49.6Cd Cu-7.75Si Ti-22.7Ag U-10.5Mo Ce-4Mg Cu-9Si T1-16Au W-26.8Ru Cu-11.8Al Cu-27Sn T1-9.9Co Zn-22Al Cu-6Be Cu-32.55Sn Ti-15Cr Zn-47Mg Cu-25.4Ga Hf-11.5Cu T1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... (σ) phase, which is an extremely brittle tetragonal structure that is usually avoided. Fig. 1 Iron-chromium equilibrium phase diagram. Source: Ref 2 The phase diagram shows that for some compositions, solid solutions can be transformed into austenite by heating them into the gamma...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... heating above the transformation temperature to dissolve excess constituents and promote more uniform distribution of alloying elements through solid-state diffusion, followed by cooling in still air. This homogenizes non-uniform structures, relieves residual stresses, and produces greater uniformity and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... two solid crystal structures (BCC or FCC), depending on temperature, and is able to transform into the liquid state (the conditions under which iron is present as a vapor are less interesting to metallurgy). Alloying elements added to iron may help make one or the other structures more stable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... hypoeutectoid structures invariant transformation peritectoid transformation EUTECTOID AND PERITECTOID transformation are classified as solid-state invariant transformations. Invariant transformations are isothermal reversible reactions that occur at an invariant point on the phase diagram of an alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... interstitial, supersaturated solid solution of iron and carbon. This metastable state has bct structure, which is even less densely packed than austenite. This results in lattice distortion that provides strength/hardness by impeding dislocation movements and a volumetric expansion at the M s temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... equilibrium phase. Like solidification, nucleation in solid-state reactions is almost always heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural defects such as grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid-state phase transformation, at least one new phase is normally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... calculated from the free energies of pure A and pure B . It is assumed that A and B have the same crystal structures in their pure states and can be mixed in any proportions to make a solid solution with the same crystal structure. Consider the case where 1 mol of homogeneous solid solution is made by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., respectively ( Fig. 6.6b ). Fig. 6.6 Mechanisms of peritectic reaction and transformation. (a) Lateral growth of a β layer along the α-liquid interface during peritectic reaction by liquid diffusion. (b) Thickening of a β layer by solid-state diffusion during peritectic transformation. The solid arrows...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... region involves atomic migration from areas of high concentration to low concentration, and any small composition fluctuation decays. Because solid-state spinodal decomposition results in two phases with the same crystal structure, the lattice must remain continuous. If the atomic radii of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Metallic properties depend on both the nature of their constituent atoms and the way in which they are assembled. Assemblies of atoms can be gases, liquids, or solids. When they are in the solid state, metals are normally arranged in a crystalline structure. The crystalline nature of metals is responsible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... morphology, which develops during solid-state interaction in a ternary couple, is defined by type, structure, number, shape, and topological arrangement of the newly formed phases. Several techniques are available to make solid-state diffusion couples, that is, to bring two (or more) materials in such...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... gas phase or a simple metallic liquid and solid solutions, where components can mix on any spatial position that is available to the phase. For example, in a simple body-centered cubic phase, any of the components could occupy any of the atomic sites that define the cubic structure, as shown in Fig...