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solid-state transformation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the characteristics of eutectoid transformations, a type of solid-state transformation associated with invariant reactions, focusing on the iron-carbon system of steel. It describes the compositions, characteristics, and properties of ferrite, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of free energy that governs whether or not a phase transformation is possible, and then the kinetic considerations that determine the rate at which transformations take place. The chapter also describes important solid-state transformations such as spinodal decomposition and martensitic transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... Abstract During fusion welding, the thermal cycles produced by the moving heat source causes physical state changes, metallurgical phase transformations, and transient thermal stresses and metal movement. This chapter begins by discussing weld metal solidification behavior and the solid-state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of alloy composition for heat-resistant alloys, nickel corrosion-resistant alloys, and nickel-base alloys. This chapter also discusses the corrosion implications of changing the alloy microstructure via solid-state transformation, second-phase precipitation, or cold work. It concludes with a comparison...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of alloy composition for heat-resistant alloys, nickel corrosion-resistant alloys, and nickel-base alloys. This chapter also discusses the corrosion implications of changing the alloy microstructure via solid-state transformation, second-phase precipitation, or cold work. It concludes with a comparison...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and solid-state phase transformations, and the allotropic nature of metals. interstitial solid solution phase transformations substitutional solid solution THE CRYSTALLINE STATE is an important mode of aggregation of metal atoms. However, assemblies of metal atoms can also exist in the two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... energies and chemical potentials, and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from free-energy curves. binary solid solutions chemical potential Gibbs free energy interatomic bonds phase diagrams single-component systems thermodynamics THERMODYNAMICS is a branch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... and heat-affected zone (HAZ), solid-state phase transformations during welding, control of toughness in the HAZ, the effects of preheating and postweld heat treatment, and weld discontinuities. This chapter provides information on the classification of steels and the welding characteristics of each class...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the effects of welding on the structure of metal, particularly the changes induced in the isothermal regions adjacent to the weld. It presents more than 150 images identifying structures and features associated with fusion and solid-state welding processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the relationship between cooling rate, grain size, grain shape, and phase structures. It explains how the transition from liquid to solid state creates the conditions under which microsegregation occurs, and how it impacts the distribution of alloying elements, carbides, and inclusions. The link between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... in liquid and solid metals are also important. The three most common crystal structures in metals are fcc, bcc, and hcp. Titanium crystallizes in the bcc structure and transforms to the hcp structure at a lower temperature. Metals solidify by forming nuclei (in the liquid state) that grow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... are governed by time and depend on the rate of heating and cooling, whereas others are not time dependent. From a room temperature microstructure and heat treatment point of view, the most important transformations in iron-carbon alloys are the solid-state transformations that occur when steel is subjected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... to rearrange themselves into different types of crystal lattices. This is referred to as an allotropy , and iron is an important example of an allotropic element with several solid-state transformation temperatures (see also Chapter 2 for more details). Below the melting point of 1540 °C (2800 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...-centered cubic (BCC) phase—and including many solid-state transformations during thermomechanical treatment. In general, these transformations take place with the formation of many nuclei of the new phase(s) that is (are) formed in the volume of material undergoing the transformation. Most often the phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of steels is that they are alloys that consist of crystals of iron and other elements. Non-uniformity in microstructure may be a result of solidification or diffusion-controlled solid-state phase transformations, as described in subsequent chapters. All of the many chemical elements present in liquid steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... or more dendrites). It is interesting to note that a dendritic pattern is not obvious in this microstructure. This is partly because the microstructure is a result of transformations that took place upon cooling in the solid state after solidification. If one takes the same piece of as-cast steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... in the solid product in the form of segregation. On the other hand, the single viable mechanism to produce homogenization in the solid state is diffusion. The low mobility of the substitutional elements in iron in the solid state and the size scale in which solidification segregation usually occurs make...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... an isolation transformer which then produces a dc voltage level that is adjustable through an SCR voltage control. This filtered dc output is the input for the solid-state RF supply’s power boards. The MOSFET’s on each board and the boards themselves are connected in parallel. A sensing circuit in the cable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7