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solid-state transformation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the characteristics of eutectoid transformations, a type of solid-state transformation associated with invariant reactions, focusing on the iron-carbon system of steel. It describes the compositions, characteristics, and properties of ferrite, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... Abstract During fusion welding, the thermal cycles produced by the moving heat source causes physical state changes, metallurgical phase transformations, and transient thermal stresses and metal movement. This chapter begins by discussing weld metal solidification behavior and the solid-state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... raising the gamma-delta transformation temperature. The systems show no iron-rich compounds (or solid solution in the alloying element) at concentrations encroaching on the alpha or delta fields. The two-phase (γ + δ) region reaches the melting range, and the two-phase (α + γ) zone is depressed toward...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and solid-state phase transformations, and the allotropic nature of metals. interstitial solid solution phase transformations substitutional solid solution THE CRYSTALLINE STATE is an important mode of aggregation of metal atoms. However, assemblies of metal atoms can also exist in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... energies and chemical potentials, and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from free-energy curves. binary solid solutions chemical potential Gibbs free energy interatomic bonds phase diagrams single-component systems thermodynamics THERMODYNAMICS is a branch of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... relationship between cooling rate, grain size, grain shape, and phase structures. It explains how the transition from liquid to solid state creates the conditions under which microsegregation occurs, and how it impacts the distribution of alloying elements, carbides, and inclusions. The link between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... welding techniques, defect prevention, fixturing, heat treatments, and general practices, including the use of filler metals. It also discusses several solid-state welding methods, superplastic forming, and transient liquid phase bonding, a type of diffusion welding process. The chapter includes extensive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... solid-solution reaction. Fig. 1 Changes in pure iron as it cools from the molten state to room temperature. Source: Ref 3 Pure iron solidifies from the liquid at 1538 °C (2800 °F) (top of Fig. 1 ). A crystalline structure, known as ferrite, or delta iron, is formed (point a, Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... faster cooling rates, the formation of ferrite is suppressed, while formation of martensite is enhanced by the shear displacement of iron atoms into an interstitial, supersaturated solid solution of iron and carbon. This metastable state has bct structure, which is even less densely packed than austenite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... cast irons. The morphology of graphite developed during solidification of cast irons cannot be altered by solid-state heating, but the transformation of metastable cementite (Fe 3 C) can be altered by heat treatment, much like steel. Like steel, heat treatment of cast iron includes: Stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... mechanical fastening, adhesive bonding, and, for thermoplastic composites, welding; the making of glass-to-metal seals; and joining of oxide and nonoxide ceramics to themselves and to metals by solid-state processes and by brazing. The classification, types, applications, and the mechanism of each of these...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., respectively ( Fig. 6.6b ). Fig. 6.6 Mechanisms of peritectic reaction and transformation. (a) Lateral growth of a β layer along the α-liquid interface during peritectic reaction by liquid diffusion. (b) Thickening of a β layer by solid-state diffusion during peritectic transformation. The solid arrows...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... region involves atomic migration from areas of high concentration to low concentration, and any small composition fluctuation decays. Because solid-state spinodal decomposition results in two phases with the same crystal structure, the lattice must remain continuous. If the atomic radii of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... morphology, which develops during solid-state interaction in a ternary couple, is defined by type, structure, number, shape, and topological arrangement of the newly formed phases. Several techniques are available to make solid-state diffusion couples, that is, to bring two (or more) materials in such...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... be of primary interest because they contain most of the alloying elements found in steels. The discussion to this point has been restricted to plain carbon steels. The code for classifying these steels in the United States was developed by two professional organizations, the American Iron and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... themselves into a unique crystal structure under equilibrium conditions, but some elements are allotropic. That is, their structure transforms from one crystal structure to another with changes in temperature and pressure, where each crystal structure is a distinctively separate solid-state phase. For...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... given to review the different stages of microstructural transformation. Before describing the solid-state reactions resulting from the tempering process in the ferrous matrix, it is important to define the martensitic structure as a function of the alloying elements, especially for the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...). Martensite is a supersaturated solid solution of carbon in alpha iron (ferrite) that is less densely packed than the γ body-centered tetragonal lattice and is a magnetic platelike structure formed by a diffusionless shear type of transformation of austenite below the martensite start (M s ) temperature. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., validated databases. Although industrial processes rarely reach an equilibrium state, knowledge of phase stabilities, phase transformation temperatures, phase amounts, and phase compositions in an equilibrium state is critical in the determination of processing parameters. In this section, four...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... 3 mm ( 1 8 in.) deep. After gently mixing with the end of a straw, blow vigorously through the straw until an array of soap bubbles fills the entire glass. The surface tension forces in the liquid soap film are similar to the surface tension forces in the solid-solid surfaces of...