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solid-state reactions

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the characteristics of eutectoid transformations, a type of solid-state transformation associated with invariant reactions, focusing on the iron-carbon system of steel. It describes the compositions, characteristics, and properties of ferrite, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... to as diffusion bonding Forge welding Roll welding Coextrusion welding Cold welding Friction welding Friction stir welding Explosion welding Ultrasonic welding Process conditions with each of these methods may allow solid-state metallurgical reactions to occur in the weld zone. When...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... The major eutectic systems include the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. The chapter discusses the construction of eutectic phase diagrams from free energy curves. It also provides information on peritectic, monotectic, and solid-state reactions in alloy systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... The standard state for reactants and products in reaction 2.62 is pure solid for solid species, one atmosphere pressure for gas species, and unit activity (approximately unit molality) for ionic species. The activity is unity in each of these standard states, and if these conditions are substituted into Eq...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and nickel-base superalloys. aluminum-copper alloys nickel-base superalloys nonequilibrium reactions precipitation hardening solution heat treating SOLID-STATE PRECIPITATION REACTIONS are of great importance in engineering alloys. Phase diagram configurations that give rise to precipitation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... with either the formation of H + ions from H 2 molecules or the formation of H 2 molecules from H + ions; the metal substrate itself does not enter into the reaction. For a single half-cell reaction at equilibrium, a dynamic state exists in which charges move in equal numbers in each direction across...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... are confined to the respective areas, as stated above. Current flows in the solution as positive ions from the anodic area where the reaction, M → M m+ + me, occurs to the cathodic area where the cathodic reaction, X x+ + xe → X, occurs; negative ions contribute to the current by flowing in the opposite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., the crystal structure (size) transforms to the less densely packed ferrite phase. At faster cooling rates, the formation of ferrite is suppressed, while formation of martensite is enhanced by the shear displacement of iron atoms into an interstitial, supersaturated solid solution of iron and carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., metastable transition phases can form prior to forming the final equilibrium phase. Like solidification, nucleation in solid-state reactions is almost always heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural defects such as grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., nucleation in solid-state reactions is almost always heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural defects such as grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid-state phase transformation, at least one new phase is normally formed that has different physical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... by mechanical fastening, adhesive bonding, and, for thermoplastic composites, welding; the making of glass-to-metal seals; and joining of oxide and nonoxide ceramics to themselves and to metals by solid-state processes and by brazing. The classification, types, applications, and the mechanism of each...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the basic steps in the steelmaking process. It explains how iron is reduced from ore in the liquid state through the classic blast furnace process and in the solid state by direct reduction. It discusses the conversion of iron to steel and the technological...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract Phases are distinct states of aggregation of matter and one of the primary leverage points for understanding and applying materials. This chapter discusses the phase nature of metals and alloys, the concept of solid solutions, and the use of phase diagrams. It also describes some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... Abstract During fusion welding, the thermal cycles produced by the moving heat source causes physical state changes, metallurgical phase transformations, and transient thermal stresses and metal movement. This chapter begins by discussing weld metal solidification behavior and the solid-state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... energies and chemical potentials, and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from free-energy curves. binary solid solutions chemical potential Gibbs free energy interatomic bonds phase diagrams single-component systems thermodynamics THERMODYNAMICS is a branch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Abstract This chapter serves as a study and guide on the main phase constituents of cast aluminum-silicon alloys, alpha-Al solid solution and Si crystals. The first section focuses on the structure of Al-Si castings in the as-cast state, covering the morphology of the alpha-Al solid solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... welding techniques, defect prevention, fixturing, heat treatments, and general practices, including the use of filler metals. It also discusses several solid-state welding methods, superplastic forming, and transient liquid phase bonding, a type of diffusion welding process. The chapter includes extensive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... (vermicular) graphite (Type IV in ASTM A247) Temper graphite (TG) from a solid-state reaction called malleabilization (Type III graphite in ASTM A247) Table 10.3 Classification of cast iron by commercial designation, microstructure, and fracture Commercial designation Carbon-rich phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... examining the various joining processes, namely fusion welding, solid-state welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical fastening, and adhesive bonding. In addition, it provides information on several design considerations related to the joining process and selection of the appropriate process for joining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of alloy composition for heat-resistant alloys, nickel corrosion-resistant alloys, and nickel-base alloys. This chapter also discusses the corrosion implications of changing the alloy microstructure via solid-state transformation, second-phase precipitation, or cold work. It concludes with a comparison...