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solid-state chemical reaction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... that denote the terminal elements by enclosing the elemental chemical symbol in parentheses. Fig. 2.10 Binary phase diagram of metals A and B, which are partially soluble in the solid state All Alpha Consider cooling an alloy “J” of composition 10% B and 90% A from the liquid state in Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of the solid is controlled almost exclusively by the rate of heat removal. Important liquid-solid transformations include the eutectic, peritectic, and monotectic reactions that are covered in Chapters 5 , 6 , and 7 in this book, respectively. 2.9 Solid-State Phase Transformations Solid-state phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... reduction processes. As iron in the ores is in an oxidized state (Fe +3 , Fe +2 ), the chemical reaction that transforms it into metallic iron (Fe 0 ) is a reduction reaction, and such processes are therefore called reduction processes. 2.1.1 The Blast Furnace The classical process for reduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the basic concepts of corrosion, discussing chemical reactions, ion transfer mechanisms, electrochemical processes and variables, and the formation of solid corrosion products. It presents a simple but effective teaching tool, the elementary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... The major eutectic systems include the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. The chapter discusses the construction of eutectic phase diagrams from free energy curves. It also provides information on peritectic, monotectic, and solid-state reactions in alloy systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... energies and chemical potentials, and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from free-energy curves. binary solid solutions chemical potential Gibbs free energy interatomic bonds phase diagrams single-component systems thermodynamics THERMODYNAMICS is a branch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdktmse.t56100001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-470-3
..., these are less obvious to many readers. Phase reactions are like chemical reactions in that one compound transforms into one or several others. The reverse can also happen. An example of such a reaction is the eutectic, where a liquid forms two different solid crystals upon freezing. Another example...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... by temperature that is necessary to overcome the energy barrier. For an Arrhenius-type reaction, an increase in temperature of approximately 10 °C (20 °F) nearly doubles the reaction rate. Fig. 4.2 Activation energy. Initial to final state 4.3 Liquid-Solid Phase Transformations At any...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Resin polymerized from acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, esters of these acids, or acrylonitrile. activation. The changing of a passive surface of a metal to a chemically active state. Contrast with passivation. active. The negative direction of electrode potential. Also used to describe corrosion and its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of Standard Change of Gibbs Free Energy for Chemical Reactions from Gibbs Free Energy of Formation For chemical reactions in which all of the reactants and products are in their standard states, the change in the GFE for the reaction is given by: (Eq 2.20) Δ G react o = Σ Δ   G...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... It explains how steel shrinks as it solidifies, causing issues such as pipe and voids, and how differences in the solubility of solid and liquid steel lead to compositional heterogeneities or segregation. It describes the dendritic nature of solidification, peritectic and eutectic reactions, microporosity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of equilibrium phase diagrams, the role of enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy in chemical reactions, and a method for determining phase compositions along the solidus and liquidus lines. atomic diffusion body-centered cubic systems crystal defects equilibrium phase diagram face-centered cubic systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... differential aeration cell. P parting. See dealloying. passivation. (1) A reduction of the anodic reaction rate of an electrode involved in corrosion. (2) The process in metal corrosion by which metals become passive. (3) The changing of a chemically active sur- face of a metal to a much less reactive state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., which can revert back to hydrated iron oxides (rust) in the presence of oxygen and water ( Fig. 15.1 ). In this example, the metal returns to its more chemically stable state from the reactions it has with the surrounding environment. Fig. 15.1 The corrosion cycle of steel Corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract Phases are distinct states of aggregation of matter and one of the primary leverage points for understanding and applying materials. This chapter discusses the phase nature of metals and alloys, the concept of solid solutions, and the use of phase diagrams. It also describes some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and arrangement of elements in a material of a given chemical composition. A phase is a physically homogeneous state of matter with a given chemical composition and structure. The simplest examples are the three states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) of a pure metal. The three phases of a pure metal have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... by mechanical fastening, adhesive bonding, and, for thermoplastic composites, welding; the making of glass-to-metal seals; and joining of oxide and nonoxide ceramics to themselves and to metals by solid-state processes and by brazing. The classification, types, applications, and the mechanism of each...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... includes tabular information and data on the intermetallic phases in the aluminum corner of the equilibrium phase diagram, the characteristics of the crystal lattice of intermetallic phases, the chemical composition of the alloy intermetallic phases, and equilibrium reactions in the alloy system...