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solid-solution-strengthened superalloys

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... additions, with elements such as aluminum, titanium, and chromium reducing the density and elements such as tungsten, rhenium, and tantalum increasing it. The main strengthening mechanisms for nickel and iron-nickel superalloys are solid-solution hardening and precipitation hardening. In addition, grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the metallurgical changes that occur and the improvements that can be achieved in superalloys through solid-solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and dispersion strengthening. It also explains how further improvements can be achieved through the control...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... from solid-solution hardeners and precipitated phases. Principal strengthening precipitate phases are γ′ and γ″, which are found in iron-nickel- and nickel-base superalloys. Carbides may provide limited strengthening directly (e.g., through dispersion hardening) or, more commonly, indirectly (e.g...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...) and/or γ″-Ni 3 Nb precipitates form in the fcc γ matrix. The second is the low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) group of alloys discussed subsequently. The third group of nickel-iron-base superalloys is the modified stainless steels, primarily strengthened by solid-solution hardening and minor...
Image
Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 12.32 10,000 h rupture strength of selected wrought solid-solution-strengthened nickel-base superalloys vs. temperature. Note the inclusion of several stainless steels and MA-956 ODS iron-base superalloy for comparison. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...′) in controlling the structure of wrought superalloys during processing. The extent to which they directly contribute to strengthening depends on the alloy and its processing. In addition to those elements that produce solid-solution hardening and/or promote carbide and γ′ formation, other elements (e.g...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... for strengthening, because cobalt alloys are not precipitation hardenable. Chromium can also provide some solid-solution hardening in cobalt-base alloys. The refractory elements in all superalloy families provide solid-solution hardening to the γ matrix. Aluminum is added to form strengthening precipitates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... alloys are used for the highest temperature applications, followed by the cobalt-base alloys and then the iron-nickel alloys. Nickel-base superalloys are strengthened by a combination of solid-solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and the presence of carbides at the grain boundaries. The face...
Image
Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 14.3 Room-temperature tensile strength vs. exposure times at 1038 °C (1900 °F) in air for Hastelloy X nickel-base solid-solution and carbide-strengthened superalloy More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...-(aluminum + titanium) content alloys. The procedures used in welding superalloys depend, to some extent, on the mechanism by which they are strengthened for high-temperature service, that is, whether primarily solid-solution strengthening or primarily precipitation strengthening is employed. Concepts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Comments γ Face-centered cubic (fcc) Depends on base metal … Solid solution of the alloy elements in the base metal γ′ fcc (ordered L1 2 ) 0.3561 for pure Ni 3 Al to 0.3568 for Ni 3 (Al 0.5 Ti 0.5 ) Ni 3 Al Ni 3 (Al,Ti) Principal strengthening phase in many Ni- and Ni-Fe-base superalloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... hardening dispersion hardening aluminum alloys solution heat treating rapid quenching PRECIPITATION HARDENING is used extensively to strengthen aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel-base superalloys, beryllium-copper alloys, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels. In precipitation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... were obtained from a series of exposures at about 2100 °F (1149 °C). Fig. 14.3 Room-temperature tensile strength vs. exposure times at 1038 °C (1900 °F) in air for Hastelloy X nickel-base solid-solution and carbide-strengthened superalloy Extensive carbide precipitation frequently can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... arising in alloy service at a later date. If a precipitation-hardened superalloy component is heated to a high temperature, particularly above about 1000 °F (540 °C), then it is being heat treated. Even solution-hardened alloys or carbide-strengthened alloys such as the cobalt-base superalloys can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... by the occurrence of an ordered form of that solid solution. The mechanical and physical properties of the localized ordered solid solution are similar to those of the primary solid solution. Solid-solution strengthening is used for hardening many commercial metals, such as nickel-base superalloys, stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... are solid-solution strengthened, although a few older alloys were γ′ hardened. Their strength was not sufficient to compete with nickel-base superalloys. Some nickel-base and iron-nickel-base superalloys also are solid-solution strengthened. However, the alloys used for highest-strength applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... … … … … … UMCo-50 (a) 21 49 … … … 28 … … … … 0.12 … … … … … (a) Strengthening mechanism, solid-solution hardened (SSH). (b) Maximum element concentration. Source: Ref 1 – 16 Applications and comments to selected superalloys in <xref ref-type="table" rid="t53000117-t1A">Table...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.9781627082679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... Alloys for high-temperature strength include a number of cobalt-base superalloys. Essentially all of the commercially important high-temperature cobalt alloys are solid-solution strengthened. In the past there were many attempts to develop age-hardenable cobalt alloys. However, they were easily surpassed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to pitting corrosion. Tungsten Tungsten in steel acts as a solid solution strengthener as well as a carbide former. It is used in some heat- or creep-resistant steels in combination with chromium or other alloying elements where the retention of strength at high temperatures is important. Being...