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solid steel processing operations

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the basic steps in the steelmaking process. It explains how iron is reduced from ore in the liquid state through the classic blast furnace process and in the solid state by direct reduction. It discusses the conversion of iron to steel and the technological...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... for mass production Improved grain flow Better surface finish and breakdown of scale in steel forgings Preform mass distribution that saves material, reduces flash, increases die life, and reduces cost in subsequent finish forging operations This process is used as a final forming operation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... prior to casting. Fig. 5.14 Examples of ladle treatments used to refine molten steels. (a) Bottom stirring. (b) Powder injection. (c) Vacuum oxygen decarburization process. (d) Vacuum arc degassing The choice of melting furnace depends on the specific alloy, the casting operation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... , which is the most commonly used casting method. Fig. 1 Simplified flow diagram of the basic operations for producing a steel casting. Similar diagrams can be applied to other ferrous and nonferrous alloys produced by sand molding. Source: Ref 1 The right side of Fig. 1 begins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... cast steel porosity decarburization cold joint inclusions casting heat treatment THE HEAT TREATMENT of a steel component is often the last step or near the end of a somewhat complex manufacturing process. Finished products require attention to each step of the long operation chain from raw...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... with an electric arc that is established between a consumable electrode (wire) and the workpiece. An externally supplied gas or gas mixture acts to shield the arc and molten weld pool. The GMAW process can be operated in semiautomatic and automatic modes. All commercially important metals, such as carbon steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of Composition, Processing, and Structure on Properties of Irons and Steels , Materials Selection and Design , Vol 20 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1997 , p 357 – 382 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002461 9.2 Verhoeven J.D. , Steel Metallurgy for the Non-Metallurgist , ASM International...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... A new welding process that has the potential to revolutionize aluminum joining has been developed by The Welding Institute (Cambridge, UK). Friction stir welding is a solid-state process that operates by generating frictional heat between a rotating tool and the workpiece ( Fig. 6.17 ). The welds...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... grains (usually retained in a viscous or liquid media, called the vehicle) held between a lapping plate (usually made of cast iron or steel hardened to 60 HRC) and the work surface. Lapping is generally a final finishing operation that results in four major refinements in the workpiece: extremely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
..., primarily as heat—which may have to be removed by cooling to avoid damage and may limit the conditions under which the machinery can be operated. Some of the energy is dissipated in various deformation processes, which result in wear of the sliding surfaces and their eventual degradation to the point where...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... is a critical solids content for maximum erosivity. Slurry abrasion tests can require abrasive particle contents of 100 g/1000 ml of fluid. As in other erosion processes, the velocity term may have an exponent. The mechanism of slurry erosion is scratching or rolling abrasion of the target surface by hard...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... are divided into two broad classes: fusion welding and solid-state welding. Fusion welding processes involve localized melting and solidification and are normally used when joining similar material combinations or materials belonging to the same family (e.g., joining one type of stainless steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... The importance of the DS and SX processes, along with improved alloy development, can be appreciated by comparing their creep performance with polycrystalline castings ( Fig. 30.12 ). The introduction of DS allowed approximately a 28 °C (50 °F) increase in operating temperature, while the SX process produced...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... require a considerable amount of labor for loading, unloading, and handling of the steel to be processed. In addition to requiring fewer operators, automation also allows the use of less-skilled operators with a minimal amount of training. The use of automatic as opposed to manual operation in a single...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... also apply to cases produced in solid (pack carburized) or liquid bath carbonaceous environments. First, it must be understood that carburizing is a distinctly separate operation; that is, it is the process of diffusing carbon into the steel surface to make it hardenable and does not necessarily...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in heat treating of stainless steels, providing information on the classification, chemical compositions, and corrosion resistance of stainless steels. Five groups of stainless steels are discussed: austenitic, ferritic, martensitic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... different atomic arrangements from the elements in solid form. By contrast, most brazes form solid solutions, which are mixtures of the constituents on an atomic scale. Joining processes of this type are defined as soldering if the filler melts at a temperature <450 °C (<840 °F) and as brazing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Coat the surface of steel with vanadium for spot welding Melt only low-temperature material, such as aluminum, in resistance, spot, and GTAW operations Use intermediate material such as vanadium (a beta-isomorphous element) with solid-state processes Use 99.99% fine silver as a braze-type...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... by mechanical fastening, adhesive bonding, and, for thermoplastic composites, welding; the making of glass-to-metal seals; and joining of oxide and nonoxide ceramics to themselves and to metals by solid-state processes and by brazing. The classification, types, applications, and the mechanism of each...