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solid state refining techniques

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... in the United States have special facilities to accommodate impurities in oil from Venezuela. The lubricants in use in this second millennium basically fit into the categories shown in Fig. 14.1 . The definitions of the basic types of lubricants are: Solid-film lubricants: Solid substances that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the basic steps in the steelmaking process. It explains how iron is reduced from ore in the liquid state through the classic blast furnace process and in the solid state by direct reduction. It discusses the conversion of iron to steel and the technological...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...; solubility increases rapidly with increasing temperature above the liquidus. Hydrogen solubility is considerably greater in the liquid than in the solid state ( Fig. 5.1 ). Actual liquid and solid solubilities in pure aluminum just above and below the solidus are 0.69 and 0.04 ppm. These values vary only...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... several inoculants to unalloyed beryllium and found that the additions did not produce any grain refinement. Experiments at Rocky Flats have shown that in 5 by 10 by 10 cm ingots, the addition of solid beryllium particles to the molten stream at pour produces a refined grain size in the center...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... States, representing 23% of the oil refining capacity of the world, corrosion-related direct costs in the oil refining sector were recently estimated to be $3.7 billion annually ( Ref 1 ). Of course, corrosion of metals used in construction of refining equipment is an expected phenomenon. Metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... ) and stirring, either mechanical or magnetic ( Ref 1 ). However, additional alloy treatment in the liquid state very often is necessary to affect efficient nucleation and growth of α aluminum solid solution grains ( Fig. 1.12 ). The technological procedure, termed refinement, is based on the introduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... be provided, and the properties that it must possess in order to be used effectively in the intended application. Practically all of the commercially available alloys produced today are manufactured using melting and solidification techniques that have been refined over time to produce an acceptable level...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... to the less than 10 ppm of oxygen found in aluminum-killed carbon steel. This oxygen precipitates as oxides in the solid state. Vacuum induction melting (VIM) is another method of melting stainless steels. This is a nearly slag-free process, and little refining is possible. Melt purity is largely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... for applications that required good appearance because the titanium streaks were difficult to avoid and greatly highlighted by polishing. This has largely been overcome by better refining techniques to reduce carbon plus nitrogen to levels below 0.02% and the use of dual stabilization by titanium and niobium; 468...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... be measured accurately only in the liquid state, so the values for the solid state are extrapolations. Also, the interaction between elements is very important in nondilute alloys such as stainless steel. Consequently, most published phase diagrams are experimentally derived. To determine which phases exist...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., are in a higher energy state than the crystals themselves. All the various ways of increasing resistance to slip in a metal part are based on increasing the interference to the slip process. These include: grain refining, cold work, solid-solution hardening, age hardening, dispersion hardening, phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... alloys in the annealed state, presented in Table 8 , but it is evident that other effects are involved, chief among which is an electronic bonding factor. The effects of multiple solutes in solid solution are somewhat less than additive and are nearly the same when one solute has a larger and the other...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... to their construction and are subject to image burn-in on the photoconductive surface. Vidicon cameras also have limited service lives and are susceptible to damage from shock and vibration. Most state-of-the-art machine vision systems use solid-state cameras, which employ charge-coupled ( Fig. 5 ) or charge...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... in the electronics industry. In the processing of germanium and silicon, for example, the material must first be refined to remove impurities. The technique utilized to perform this function is called zone refining. In this method, the material is incrementally melted while being gradually moved through...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... England 1779 Cast iron used as architectural material, Ironbridge Gorge England 1826 Zinc statuary France 1838 Electrodeposition of copper Russia, England 1884 Electrolytic refining of aluminum United States, France Source: Ref 4.1 Six metals were used by prehistoric man...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... a metallurgically sound region), and the control of microstructure, which is possible in titanium alloys (discussed later in this chapter). The beta-to-alpha phase transformation that takes place during solid-state cooling from the solidification temperature results in a fine lenticular alpha structure ( Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... It was not until the late 1960’s that motor-generators were replaced by solid-state converters for frequencies now considered to be in the “medium-frequency” rather than the high-frequency range. [1] Following the acceptance of induction heating for metal melting, other applications of this promising...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Use of dilatometric measurements to determine points on phase boundaries in the solid state. Adapted from Ref 12.2 Measurement of electrical resistance is a useful auxiliary technique for the determination of alloy phase diagrams. The basic procedure to determine phase regions is to plot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... of microalloyed HSLA steels result, however, from more than just the mere presence of microalloying elements. Austenite conditioning, which depends on the complex effects of alloy design and rolling techniques, is also an important factor in the grain refinement of hot-rolled HSLA steels. Grain refinement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Abstract This chapter describes various aspects of the billet making process and how they affect the quality of aluminum extrusions. It begins with an overview of the direct-chill continuous casting technique and its advantages over other methods, particularly for hard aluminum alloys...