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soil environments

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... the effect. The threshold stress necessary to produce cracking decreases with increasing nitrate solution concentration. Stress-corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines has been linked to environments consisting of carbonate/bicarbonate solutions in the buried soil environment. The development...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... metals have a different corrosion potential in a given environment. An example is the galvanic series for metals in soils, shown in Table 3 ( Ref 11 ). When these metals are electrically coupled, the metal with the most positive corrosion potential is cathodically polarized, reducing its corrosion rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... in a natural environment for a limited period of time. The natural environment, whether in laboratory or field tests, with soil or aquatic systems, must be conducive to degradation of readily decayed natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Deterioration is therefore an inevitable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... has little natural corrosion resistance, to be used in such corrosive environments as seawater, acid soils, salt-laden concrete, and many other corrosive environments. Properly designed and maintained cathodic protection systems can prevent corrosion indefinitely in these environments. Cathodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... magnesium anodes in the United States are supplied with a prepackaged bentonite clay backfill in a permeable cloth sack. This backfill ensures that the anode will have a conductive environment and will corrode reliably. The additional material is less expensive than the soil resistivity surveys that would...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
..., or a substance adsorbed on or absorbed in another substance. All structural metals corrode to some extent in natural environments (e.g., the atmosphere, soil, or waters). Bronze, brass, most stainless steels, zinc, and pure aluminum corrode so slowly in service conditions that long service life is expected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
....068C.030 14. Recommended Practice for Cathodic Protection of Aluminum Pipe Buried in Soil or Immersed in Water , Mater. Prot. , Vol 2 ( No. 10 ), 1963 , p 106 15. Hewes F.W. , Investigation of Maximum and Minimum Criteria for the Cathodic Protection of Aluminum in Soil , Oil...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... it becomes apparent that the base material has uniformly thinned. Uniform chemical attack of metals is the simplest form of corrosion, occurring in the atmosphere, in solutions, and in soil, frequently under normal service conditions. Excessive attack can occur when the environment has changed from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... environments soured by sulfate-reducing-bacteria (SRB)-produced sulfides Underground pipeline Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source of SRB Water treatment Heat exchangers and piping Sewage handling and treatment Concrete and reinforced-concrete...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... structural components, for example, welded pipes, or test specimens in outdoor environments that are representative of many general service situations. These so-called natural environments include exposures to the atmosphere, waters, and soil. Test materials are subjected to the cyclic effects of the weather...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... for Rubber O-Rings • D 1654, Method for Evaluation of Painted or Coated Specimens Subjected to Corrosive Environments • D 1743, Test Method for Corrosion Preventive Properties of Lubricating Greases • D 1838, Test Method for Copper Strip Corrosion by Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases • D 2059...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
..., %, during exposure of indicated length in environment type Seacoast (a) Industrial (b) Rural (c) 6 mo l yr 2 yr 5 yr 6 mo 1 yr 2 yr 5 yr 6 mo l yr 2 yr 5 yr 2024-T351 33 46 52 70 6 9 13 20 1 2 5 11 2024-T851 20 25 26 28 2 5 6 11 0 0 0 6 5456-H116 4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... by conditioning of the metal, by conditioning the environment, and by electrochemical control. Finally, the chapter deals with high-temperature oxidation that usually occurs in the absence of moisture. uniform corrosion galvanic corrosion pitting corrosion crevice corrosion erosion corrosion cavitation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... of a fluid. One of the simplest examples of erosion is water erosion of shorelines on bodies of water or flowing streams and rivers. Creeks through treeless fields continue to get wider with every heavy rain event. If the creek cuts through fields of just soil, the mechanical action of the flowing water...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Bath Descaling Background Surface Finishes by Chemical (Electrochemical) Means Surface Finishes by Mechanical Means Comments Cleaning is required to remove contaminants from the surfaces of parts made of superalloys. Shop soils such as oil, grease, and cutting fluids can be removed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... environments that can cause stress-corrosion cracking of metals and alloys under certain conditions Table 3 Some environments that can cause stress-corrosion cracking of metals and alloys under certain conditions Material Environment Aluminum alloys NaCl-H 2 O 2 solutions NaCl solutions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., precipitation, winds, and the mechanical and chemical action of natural forces such as sand and rock particles, soil dust, volcanic dust, organic matter, and industrial dust. Also, various physical, chemical, and biological factors, including manipulation of the environment as may occur in many engineering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... can equal or exceed that of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. Because of the excellent properties obtainable with these low-cost engineering materials, cast irons find wide application in environments that demand good corrosion resistance, including water, soils, acids, alkalis, saline...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., Brush Wellman, OH Code of Federal Regulations . http://www.gpoaccess.gov/CFR/index.html Deubner D.C. , Lowney Y.W. , Paustenbach D.J. , and Warmerdam J. , 2001 . Contribution of Incidental Exposure Pathways to Total Beryllium Exposures , Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg...