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soil electrical resistivity

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... This is particularly true in higher resistivity soil. Accelerated corrosion occurs on the foreign line at the point of current discharge. The location of the discharge can be detected because the pipe-to-soil potential is very low at that point. Likewise in an oil or gas field, where the flow-line system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... occurred on a variety of sizes, grades, and vintages of line pipe steel. Stress-corrosion cracking has been found in flash welded, submerged arc welded (SAW), electric resistance welded (ERW), and seamless pipe. The chemical compositions of the failed pipes are typical for the vintage and grade...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... concentrations of soluble salts. Because of the presence of salts, such soils have relatively high electrical conductivites (or low electrical resistivities). The least corrosive soils have low concentrations of soluble salts and high resistivities. Resistivity measurements can be obtained readily and provide...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Properties of bulk ceramic anode materials Property Value Electrical resistivity 250–1000 × 10 −6 Ω · cm. Resistivity decreases as density increases. Thermal expansion 5 × 10 −6 /°C Thermal conductivity 10–20 W/m · K Modulus of rupture 100 MPa (14.5 ksi) and higher. Some grades...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to impressed-current techniques when the current requirements are low and the electrolyte has relatively low resistivity (less than about 10,000 Ω · cm). Clearly, it has an advantage when there is no source of electrical power and when a completely underground system is desired. Capital investment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
...Widely used tests for determining the corrosion resistance of protective coatings Table 5 Widely used tests for determining the corrosion resistance of protective coatings Test Description and remarks Salt spray (ASTM B 117) Most widely specified test. Atomized 5% sodium chloride...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... for alloys that exhibit both active and passive behavior. The rate of attack depends on (a) the difference in corrosion potentials between the two metals, (b) the electrical resistance between the two metals, (c) the conductivity of the electrolyte, (d) the cathode-anode area ratio, and (e...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... in both the metal and the electrolyte is required for continuation of the corrosion reaction. Of course, it is not practical to increase the electrical resistance of the metal because the sites of the anodic and cathodic reactions are not known, nor are they predictable. However, it is possible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
..., Test Method for Coulometric Reduction of Surface Films on Metallic Test Samples • B 826, Test Method for Monitoring Atmospheric Corrosion Tests by Electrical Resistance Probes • C 692, Method of Evaluating the Influence of Wicking-Type Thermal Insulations on the Stress Corrosion Cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... engineering alloys, if process fluid is of suitable conductivity. Portable instruments at modest cost to more expensive automatic units are available. Frequent Electrical resistance Integrated metal loss is measured by the resistance change of a corroding metal element. Corrosion rates can be calculated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., hydrotest, and outage periods Onshore and offshore oil and gas Mothballed and waterflood systems; oil- and gas-handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate-reducing-bacteria (SRB)-produced sulfides Underground pipeline Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and Technology, 1978 and Battelle updates in 1995 2. “High-Performance Alloys for Resistance to Aqueous Corrosion ,” Special Metals Corporation 3. Higgins R.A. , Engineering Metallurgy—Applied Physical Metallurgy , 6th ed. , Arnold , 1993 4. Forms of Corrosion , Failure Analysis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... with a general overview of the factors influencing corrosion in iron and steel and a brief discussion of corrosion-resistant coatings. mill products hot rolling cold rolling forging extruding drawing electric arc furnace oxygen furnace plain carbon steels low-carbon steels medium-carbon plain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... in Atmospheres Corrosion in Waters Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Corrosion in Soils Corrosion in Building Materials Corrosion in Foods and Chemicals General Background Resistance of Aluminum to Atmospheric Corrosion Atmospheric Corrosion Testing Indoor Atmospheres High...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... as vapor honing, also is used to clean heat-resistant alloys. This process uses No. 200 to 1250 silica abrasive particles (0.0029 to 0.0004 in., or 0.074 to 0.010 mm) mixed with water to produce a slurry that removes loose scale, discoloration, and soils. Metal loss is not excessive when normal pressures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... be successfully introduced. These include the following: Atmospheric corrosion, including humidity, and both natural and man-made pollutants Soil corrosion, as determined by such factors as moisture content, level of electrical conductivity, acidity level, amount of dissolved salts, and aeration...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... for specific uses, including wear resistance, chemical resistance, high reflectivity, electrical resistance, and prevention of hydrogen diffusion. Ceramic-coated metals are used for furnace components, heat treating equipment, chemical processing equipment, heat exchangers, rocket motor nozzles, exhaust...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...) Cadmium Aluminum alloys 2117, 2017, 2024 (in this order) Low-carbon steel Wrought iron Cast iron Ni-Resist (high-nickel cast iron) Type 410 stainless steel (active) 50-50 lead-tin solder Type 304 stainless steel (active) Type 316 stainless steel (active) Lead Tin Copper...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... It is recognized that several industries face difficult corrosion problems because of very aggressive atmospheres, including the electrical power transmission and distribution industry, chemical/petrochemical production plants and equipment, aircraft, automotive manufacture and associated components...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1