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sodium sulfate system

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... included among the rejected candidates are potassium acid sulfate, potassium acid fluoride, sodium, carbonate, and others. The search for less expensive sources of alkali led to the lime fusion process of Bayliss and Derry [1963] . The addition of large amounts of CaCO 3 to beryl before fusing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... a nucleus to form masses or agglomerates that can be filtered. Chemicals such as alum (aluminum sulfate), sodium aluminate, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, activated silica, and high-molecular-weight polyelectrolytes are often used as coagulants. They cause impurities that are otherwise present as fine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) ( Ref 3 ). Significant amounts of vanadium, sodium, and sulfur were observed in the deposits collected from superheater/reheater tubes, or from the uncooled tube hangers for the superheater/reheater tubes in boilers. The analysis of the deposits collected from corrosion probes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... sulfate begins to decompose at 580 to 600 °C (1075 to 1110 °F). Beryllium sulfate forms double salts with sodium, potassium, and ammonium. The compounds 3Na 2 SO 4 · BeSO 4 , K 2 SO 4 · BeSO 4 ·2H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 · BeSO 4 ·2H 2 O, and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -BeSO 4 above 50 °C (120 °F) have been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... for chemical analysis, a trace of halide or sulfate ion promotes dissolution. It is suspected that the trace of residual chloride present in electrowon beryllium flakes was responsible for the reported reactivity with nitric acid. Beryllium is rapidly dissolved by aqueous ammonium bifluoride: (Eq 8.1) 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...). Note that the specimen tested at pH of 2 did not fail in 1000 h of testing. After Ref 7.9 Fig. 7.4 Potential pH diagram for a system of copper and a water solution with 1.0 g·mol/L of ammonia partly as ammonium sulfate and 0.05 g·atom/L of dissolved copper added as sulfate at 25 °C (77 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... 0.0295 Potassium chloride, KCl 8.94 0.1119 Potassium cyanide, KCN 8.21 0.1218 Potassium hydroxide, KOH 5.07 0.1972 Sodium chloride, NaCl 11.6 0.0862 Sodium hydroxide, NaOH 5.77 0.1733 Sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 19.1 0.0523 Sodium sulfate, Na 2 SO 4 16.8 0.0595...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... the volume reaches approximately 25 mL. Allow to cool. This digestion drives off all the cyanide nitrogen as hydrogen cyanide and fixes the cyanate nitrogen as ammonium bisulfate or ammonium sulfate. Add 350 mL of ammonia-free distilled water and 50 mL of ammonia-free 72% sodium hydroxide to the digested...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... cobalt-base alloys corrosion resistance gas turbines hot corrosion nickel alloys 9.1 Introduction During combustion in the gas turbine, sulfur from the fuel reacts with sodium chloride from ingested air at elevated temperatures to form sodium sulfate. The sodium sulfate then deposits...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... steam through the combustion of the organic matter in the liquor in the heat transfer section. During the process, inorganic solids such as sodium sulfate, sodium sulfide, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, and sodium hydroxide are melted on the furnace bed. Combustion of black liquor under reducing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... • • • Sodium phosphate (tribasic) • • Sodium sulfateSodium sulfide • Steam • • Steam, geothermal (aerated) • • Strontium nitrate • Sulfate liquor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... to combustion atmospheres and surface deposits. In general, the defining characteristics of this high-temperature corrosion include the formation and deposition of salts such as sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ), which may contain other constituents such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, also as sulfates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., which are often molten at the turbine operating temperature. The major components of such salts are sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) and/or potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ), apparently formed in the combustion process from sulfur from the fuel and sodium from the fuel or the ingested air. Because potassium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Copper sulfate-sulfuric acid A 262 Dealloying (dezincification) Total immersion testing for dealloying G 31 Exfoliation (aluminum alloys) Ammonium chloride-ammonium nitrate-ammonium tartrate-hydrogen peroxide (ASSET test) G 66 Sodium chloride-potassium nitrate-nitric acid (EXCO test) G34...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... sulfides on steel, or of lead sulfate on lead. Such films can be cathodic to the base metal exposed at breaks or pores in the scale or even to such extraneous items as valves or pumps in a piping system. As described in the following example, passive surface films can contribute to galvanic corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... + 4 H 2 Corrosion in waterwall tubes occurs through the action of chloride or sulfate salts and occurs at relatively low temperatures. The salts react with the protective magnetite layer and make it porous to the extent that it hardly remains protective. From the point of view...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., glutaraldehyde, acrolein, chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ), chlorine, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), isothiazolone, dibromonitrile proionamide, sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, and tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate. The mechanisms and examples of biological corrosion are discussed in Ref 58 to 60 . A method...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and applicable only to relatively pure solutions. Beryllium is first precipitated with ammonia (pH 8.5) from a sulfate or chloride solution, and an excess of alkali fluoride is added as potassium or sodium fluoride. An almost quantitative reaction occurs: (Eq 9.1) Be ( OH ) 2 + 4 F − ↔...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
.... They can absorb hydrogen so quickly in concentrated caustics that a 30 min exposure could cause hydrogen levels to exceed specification. A more effective aqueous solution contains either copper sulfate or sodium sulfate in addition to sodium hydroxide. This bath operates at a lower temperature, 105 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... systems, as described in the section “ MIC of Passive Alloys ” in this article. Another example of a chemical concentration cell is that between manganese- and sulfide-rich areas. Whenever microbial sulfate reduction and manganese deposition occur simultaneously within biofilms, then a differential...