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soaps

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Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 9.18: Pressure or nozzle die for promoting hydrodynamic lubrication with soaps. More
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 5.11: An illustration of thermal activation, where a boundary lubricant (soap) forms during a first thermal cycle. This boundary lubricant persists upon cooling and reheating, improving the tribological performance thereafter. More
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 8.1 (a) Soap grains and (b) beer bubbles simulating metal grains More
Image
Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 7.5 Zinc phosphate coating and soaping lubrication system. [ Bay, 1994 ] More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the properties and attributes of various classes of metalworking lubricants, including mineral oils; natural oils, fats, derivatives, and soaps; synthetic fluids (olefins, esters, polyglycols, ionic liquids); compounded lubricants (oils, greases, fats); aqueous...
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 5.4 (a) Illustrative explanation of Laplace equation, showing internal pressure by surface tension bubbles. (b) The experiment on two soap bubbles. The smaller soap bubble becomes smaller, and the larger bubble expands. The smaller bubble will disappear. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... on the internally cooled capstans. Additionally, external air cooling of the wire coil and water cooling of the die holder are possible. If water is applied to the wire at all, it must be removed before the wire enters the next die. The lubricant is usually a dry soap powder, placed in a die box and picked up...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... in cold forming of steels, aluminum alloys, and copper, using conventional phosphate-soap lubricants or oils. m = 0.2 to 0.4 in hot forming of steels, copper, and aluminum alloys with graphite-based (graphite-water or graphite-oil) lubricants. m = 0.1 to 0.3 in hot forming of titanium and high...
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 6.7: Apparent viscosity and initial yield strength vs. temperature for various soaps. More
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 9.33: Effect of die cooling on wear rate in drawing of 0.6% C steel wire (patented, phosphate/soap lubrication, reduced from 4.5 to 4.0 mm diameter at 6 m/s). More
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 9.20: Film thicknesses measured in drawing 0.3% C steel wire (nozzle length, 37 mm; reduction from 3.4 to 3.2 mm diameter with a Na-Ca-stearate soap) and calculated from a Bingham model ( η = 1.5 Pa-s). More
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 9.26: Relationship between die life and boundary-lubricated area in drawing of steel wire. Dry drawing: 7.5 m/s, 0.6%C steel; patented, phosphate soap lubricated. Wet drawing: 1.25 m/s, austenitic stainless steel. More
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 11.30: Shear stress and coefficient of friction measured in upsetting of aluminum with various lubricants. A - Dry; B - Oleic acid in mineral oil, abraded surface; C - same as B, but etched; D - lauric acid in mineral oil, etched; E - mineral oil, etched; F-MoS 2 ; G - soap. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... and other metals can be modeled surprisingly well with soap bubbles. A very simple kitchen experiment can give a feel for the geometry of grains in metals. In the bottom of a small-diameter clear glass, place several drops of a liquid dishwashing soap, and then add enough water to make a layer approximately...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Isobutylene, acrylate copolymers, etc. Antifoam agents Surfactants, etc. Detergents Calcium and barium soaps, etc. Friction modifiers Sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine compounds, etc. Antiwear Tricresyl phosphate, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate, etc. Varnish control Oxidation-resistance aids...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... [ 95 – 97 ]. The analysis of lubrication conditions is also possible [ 98 , 99 ]. This test method has been used for general tribological applications, such as evaluation of diamond-like carbon [ 71 ], or to characterize soap-phosphate coatings [ 100 ]. The sliding-compression test (SCT) performs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... with soap and water, the cars looked as good as new. VIA Rail estimated that the cost of restoration would be less than $1 million per car, which they figured was probably about half of what it would cost for a new car. In other words, it could be said that each stainless steel shell is worth...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... are stiffened by a structure that has to be broken down before flow can begin; a definite yield strength is first measured beyond which the stress is again a function of strain rate, as in a viscous fluid ( Fig. 5.3b ). Such substances are exemplified by greases in which the soap structure must be broken down...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... steel. Lubricant Strip drawing μ Draw bending Deep drawing Maximum draw force (kN) Spray PTFE 0.150 0.116 0.210 126 Talcum 0.161 0.120 0.158 116 Phosphate + soap 0.174 0.140 0.140 116 Graphited grease 0.197 0.172 0.154 124 Dry 0.203 0.196 0.168 134...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
..., and, in about 60 A.D ., Pliny the elder described the manufacture of soap. Thus, at whatever point of development the first lubricant may have been used, a variety of eminently suitable substances certainly must have been available. Forging continued to be the dominant process for many centuries. Coin...