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slab method

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... the effect of key process parameters including the draw ratio, material properties, geometry, interface conditions, equipment operating speed, and tooling. It then walks through the steps involved in predicting stress, strain, and punch force using the slab method and finite element analysis and presents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract There are numerous approximate methods, both analytical and numerical, for analyzing forging processes. None are perfect because of the assumptions made to simplify the mathematical approach, but all have merit. This chapter discusses the slab, upperbound, and finite element...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter presents a relatively simple method for estimating forging loads and flow stresses. The method uses the slab analysis technique and accounts for material properties, friction and heat transfer, press ram speed, forging geometry, and billet and die temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... and time-consuming experiments. In this way, coil designs and operating conditions are easily determined. However, at present, methods of treating the induction heating of only relatively simple geometries, such as round bars, tubes, sheets, plates, and slabs, have been developed. This is due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., which may cause die breakage due to mechanical fatigue. To analyze stresses, “slab method of analysis” or process simulation using finite-element method (FEM)-based computer codes is generally used. The FEM approach is discussed later. By modifying the flash dimensions, the die and material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Models Extrusion Pressure Analysis of Extrusion Pressure Extrusion Force Relationship between Ram Speed and Extrusion Speed <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t68260001-ref24">(Ref 24)</xref> Extrusion Ratio Extrusion Temperature Extrusion Speed Material Flow Stress Slab Method...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... contact (%DWC). Slab method analysis is used to predict the forging load required, based on material properties and process geometries. The maximum tooling load, L, based on geometry and material properties is [ Altan et al., 1996 ]: (Eq 17.4a) L = π 4 d 1 2 σ f ( 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... produces a grain structure between that of VAR and typical cast product, with commensurate intermediate segregation patterns. Continuous slab, billet, and bloom casting have become the standard methods of making stainless steel primary products, replacing the obsolete ingot method. There are some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... or an electric arc furnace to produce steel that usually has a carbon content of less than 1 wt%. After the pig iron has been reduced to steel, it is cast into ingots or continuously cast into slabs. Cast steels are then hot worked to improve homogeneity, refine the as-cast microstructure, and fabricate desired...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... on the cast house floor. The central branch of iron leading from the furnace was called the sow, and the side branches were called pigs. The two dominant steelmaking methods during the 20th century were the Bessemer and open-hearth processes. In the Bessemer process, developed in 1856, air was blown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., for example, by forging of bars or cold rolling and annealing of hot-rolled strip. Superimposed on the diagram are the changes in casting that have developed over the last half century. The large size of ingots requires considerable breakdown hot work to produce intermediate products such as slabs, blooms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... are to be produced. An upsetting operation may also be used if slabs ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 m (47 to 60 in.) wide are required. This method produces greater widths than could be expected from straight forging of ingots ranging from 711 to 813 mm (28 to 32 in.) in diameter. An ingot at the start of forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... of the McLouth steel induction slab heating facility, rated at a total of 210 MW, used to preheat slabs as large as 30 cm by 152 cm by 8 m (12 in. by 60 in. by 26 ft) to the rolling temperature of 1260 °C (2300 °F) Source: Ajax Magnethermic Corp. Fig. 4.14 “Ross” coil used in the heating of steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... , Editora Edgard Blucher , 2010 6. Winegard W.C. , An Introduction to the Solidification of Metals , Institute of Metals , 1964 7. Kurz W. and Fisher D.J. , Fundamentals of Solidification , Trans Tech Publications , 1984 8. Chumbley S. , Method to Make...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Shafts Heading Bolts Other fasteners Rolling Slab Sheet (can, appliance, and automotive industries) Surface Hardening, Tempering Gears Shafts Valves Machine tools Hand tools Through Hardening, Tempering Structural members Spring steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... 16.1 . In addition to shaping the metal, bulk deformation is used to refine the structure that results from solidification. To refine the inhomogeneous structure resulting from solidification, cast ingots and continuously cast slabs and blooms are typically hot worked into intermediate product forms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... and electrical efficiency. The chapter concludes with a discussion of methods for determination of power requirements for a given application. References References 1. Halliday D. and Resnick R. , Physics , Wiley , New York , 1966 2. Tudbury C. A. , Basics of Induction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
...) (a) This table is based on use of proper frequency and normal over-all operating efficiency of equipment. Values given may be used for static and progressive methods of heating; however, for some applications, higher inputs can be used when hardening progressively. (b) For greater depth of hardening, a lower...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... and the properties of the formed product and the force and energy requirements of the process. The mechanics of deformation, i.e., the metal flow, strains, strain rates, and stresses, can be investigated by using one of the approximate methods of analysis (e.g., finite-element analysis, finite difference, slab...