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slab method

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Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 8.4: The slab method of metal forming analysis. (a) A slab at a distance x from the exit, with thickness dx and height h ; (b) stresses acting on the slab upstream of the neutral point; (c) stresses acting downstream of the neutral point. More
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Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 17.9 Dividing layers for the modified slab analysis method [ Altan et al., 1996 ] More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... of key process parameters including the draw ratio, material properties, geometry, interface conditions, equipment operating speed, and tooling. It then walks through the steps involved in predicting stress, strain, and punch force using the slab method and finite element analysis and presents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter presents a relatively simple method for estimating forging loads and flow stresses. The method uses the slab analysis technique and accounts for material properties, friction and heat transfer, press ram speed, forging geometry, and billet and die temperatures. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract There are numerous approximate methods, both analytical and numerical, for analyzing forging processes. None are perfect because of the assumptions made to simplify the mathematical approach, but all have merit. This chapter discusses the slab, upperbound, and finite element methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Abstract This chapter discusses the selection, use, and integration of methods to control process variables in induction heating, including control of workpiece and processing temperature and materials handling systems. The discussion of temperature control includes a review of proportional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., and the molten pool is deeper. This deeper pool produces a grain structure between that of VAR and typical cast product, with commensurate intermediate segregation patterns. Casting Continuous slab, billet, and bloom casting have become the standard methods of making stainless steel primary products...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... not allow the forging pressure to reach a high value, which may cause die breakage due to mechanical fatigue. To analyze stresses, “slab method of analysis” or process simulation using finite-element method (FEM)-based computer codes is generally used. The FEM approach is discussed later. By modifying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
.... The greater the billet length, the higher the extrusion pressure. Billet temperature remains within extrusion range; extrusion pressure remains fairly unaffected when extrusion speed is increased within normal limits. Analysis of Extrusion Pressure Slab Method In this section, the average...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... or an electric arc furnace to produce steel that usually has a carbon content of less than 1 wt%. After the pig iron has been reduced to steel, it is cast into ingots or continuously cast into slabs. Cast steels are then hot worked to improve homogeneity, refine the as-cast microstructure, and fabricate desired...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Abstract This chapter presents the criteria, methods, and benefits of cast-weld construction. cast-weld parts steel castings welded parts welding processes Criteria and Methods for Cast-Weld Construction Four considerations make this method of construction attractive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... in the process are silicon (from dirt), iron (from banding), and titanium (from white pigment on beverage containers). There are no feasible methods to remove these elements from molten aluminum, meaning that the only way to recycle dirty, unsorted scrap is to dilute the contaminants with pure metal, raising...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... or for continuous casting. Figure 2.8 is a representation of two alternative methods for casting either billets or slabs. The left-hand side shows a system for casting ingots. Cast ingots are hydraulically stripped from the ingot mold and loaded into a reheating furnace. Heated billets are fed into a blooming...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... called pigs. 19.4 Steelmaking The two dominant steelmaking methods during the 20th century were the Bessemer and open-hearth processes. In the Bessemer process, developed in 1856, air was blown through molten pig iron to reduce the carbon and silicon contents to tolerable levels. In the open...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., for example, by forging of bars or cold rolling and annealing of hot-rolled strip. Superimposed on the diagram are the changes in casting that have developed over the last half century. The large size of ingots requires considerable breakdown hot work to produce intermediate products such as slabs, blooms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... with the deformed billet to the length of the die wall and is termed in percentage of die wall contact (%DWC). Slab method analysis is used to predict the forging load required, based on material properties and process geometries. The maximum tooling load, L, based on geometry and material properties is [ Altan...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... refinement in the structure. This is especially useful if large-section billets are to be produced. An upsetting operation may also be used if slabs ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 m (47 to 60 in.) wide are required. This method produces greater widths than could be expected from straight forging of ingots...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
...-frequency ac. It should also be emphasized that the method of rating power level for induction power supplies varies. For example, motor-generators are rated in kilowatts (rated current times rated voltage times power factor) at the output terminals of the generator. Because solid-state power...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... (or lines, in a plane section) are determined via chemical etching or an analytical method, the dendritic structure is more or less evident. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 8.34 Mapping of characteristic x-rays for elements manganese (varying from 1.3% to 1.6%) and phosphorus (from 0% to 0.03...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Abstract Electromagnetic induction, or simply "induction," is a method of heating electrically conductive materials such as metals. It is commonly used for heating workpieces prior to metalworking and in heat treating, welding, and melting. This technique also lends itself to various other...