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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... tend to be confined to the outer surface of the workpiece, a phenomenon known as the skin effect. The chapter includes several data plots showing how the depth of heating varies with frequency and how heating time, power density, and thermal conduction rate correspond with hardening depth...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Abstract The chapter covers various aspects of biotribology in the context of dental care, orthopedic implants, haptics, eyewear, and stents and fixation devices. It also addresses the issue of biocompatibility and the effects of friction and contact pressure on skin. bioapplications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Abstract This chapter reviews the types of friction that are of concern in tribological systems along with their associated causes and effects. It discusses some of the early discoveries that led to the development of friction laws and the understanding that friction is a system effect that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... factors that influence them. It explains how cold working increases dislocation density and how that affects the stress-strain characteristics of steel, particularly the onset of deformation. It describes the effects of deformation on ferrite, austenite, cementite, and pearlite, and how to optimize their...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Engineering metals undergo many transformations in the course of production, none more critical than those that occur during solidification. This chapter discusses the process of solidification and its effects on the structure and properties of cast metals. It describes the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the types, methods, and advantages of heat treating procedures, including annealing, normalizing, tempering, and case hardening. It describes the iron-carbon system, the formation of equilibrium and metastable phases, and the effect of alloy elements on...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... types, including high-speed and shock-resisting steels, and their associated subtype groups (W, L, S, O, A, D, H, M, and T series). It also discusses the types of carbides found in tool steels and their influence on mechanical properties. The chapter concludes with a discussion on heat treatment effects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the composition, structure, and properties of iron-nickel-, nickel-, and cobalt-base superalloys and the effect of major alloying and trace elements. It describes the primary and secondary roles of each alloying element, the amounts typically used, and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... in areas where there are stress concentrations, should be considered. For example, a soft laminate may be used effectively for an outer skin, whereas the interior stiffeners, which are exposed to less damage, may advantageously use a stiffer and hence more weight-efficient but less damage-tolerant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract In an attempt to explain the stresses encountered in the plastics industry, this article first defines the different types of internal stresses in amorphous polymers. Each type of thermal stress is then discussed in detail, with reference to the mechanism of generation and the effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... deformation processes such as stretching, bending, flanging, deep drawing, and blanking. It then describes the complex tribology of AHSS forming operations, the role of lubrication, the effect of tool steels and coatings, and the force and energy requirements of various forming presses. It also discusses the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... the soft skin effect. Decarburization is classified as either total or partial. Total decarburization refers to the removal of essentially all the carbon from the immediate surface; the polished and etched surface microstructure is ferritic ( Fig. 2.11a ). It will likely have a layer of partial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of beryllium by the gastrointestinal tract is assumed to be less than 1%. Animal research indicated that systemic beryllium toxicity is limited. Oral ingestion of beryllium sulfate in rats over two years showed no effects on their cardiovascular system, lungs, eyes, skin, liver, or gastrointestinal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...). This is necessary in order to maintain adequate “skin effect” and to enable induction to take place at all. If the reference depth is chosen to be comparable to or larger than the bar radius, there will be two sets of eddy currents near the center of the bar induced from diametrically opposed surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... each process influences part design and the properties of the plastic part. It also includes a brief description of functional requirements in process selection; an overview of various process effects and how they affect the functions and properties of the part; and the selection of processes for size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Boiler tubes operating at high temperatures under significant pressure are vulnerable to stress rupture failures. This chapter examines the cause, effect, and appearance of such failures. It discusses the conditions and mechanisms that either lead to or are associated with stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... material resulting in subsequent fatigue crack growth Selection and development of materials with improved toughness at the service temperature of –160 °C (–250 °F) Comet aircraft failures 1950s Fatigue crack initiation in pressurized skins due to high gross stresses and stress-concentration effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the equipment and processes used to form titanium alloy parts. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of hot and cold forming, the factors that influence formability, and the effect of forming temperature and lubricants. It describes common processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Abstract This chapter provides guidelines and insights on the selection of materials, coatings, and treatments for friction and wear applications. It begins with a review of the system nature of tribological effects, the subtleties of friction, and the selection idiosyncrasies of the material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... therefore softer. The mold exerts a chilling effect, causing many castings to have a hard, white skin on the surface. This is often noticeable when taking the first cut during a machining operation. The cutting tool is immediately dulled by the hard, white skin. Fig. 24.13 Effect of cooling rate on...