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sintering densification

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Abstract After shaping and first-stage binder removal, the component (with remaining backbone binder) is heated to the sintering temperature. Further heating induces densification, evident as dimensional shrinkage, pore rounding, and improved strength. This chapter begins with a discussion...
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Published: 01 October 2012
Fig. 10.20 Progressive densification and grain growth at several stages of sintering. (a) Initial stage. (b) Intermediate stage. (c) Final stage. (d) Fracture surface. The fracture surface micrograph shows the desirable placement of spherical pores on grain boundaries in the final stage More
Image
Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 10.38 Sintering time influence on densification for a slip cast 0.4 μm median particle size alumina, comparing a narrow and broad size distribution. At intermediate densities, the broad distribution improves sintering, but the two distributions converge to similar behavior at more than 95 More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 2.8 Cross-sectional view through a ferrous powder. The external view of the powder failed to detect this internal porosity. Dense particles are necessary for high properties because these internal pores are resistant to sintering densification. Courtesy of J. Marsden More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... any initial particle size effect. The estimated grain growth rate of 7 μm 3 /s means almost no measurable difference in grain structure (and sintering densification) late in sintering, independent of starting particle size. Even a 60 μm particle size, sintered at 1340 °C (2445 °F) for 60 min...
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 8.3 Sintered density versus hold time for 42 μm titanium powder vacuum sintered at three temperatures. Faster rates of densification (steeper slopes) are associated with shorter times and higher temperatures. More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 8.9 Two variants in the mathematical treatment of sintering. The upper drawing corresponds to surface transport mechanisms that reposition mass along the outer surface to form the sinter neck without densification. The lower drawing corresponds to bulk transport mechanisms that move mass More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 10.33 High-purity alumina is sintered with different dopants at increasing concentrations to show that densification improves with magnesia but is hindered with calcia. Source: Bae and Baik ( Ref 19 ) More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 8.4 Sintered density versus particle size for zinc sulfide heated in nitrogen for 120 min at 1000 °C (1830 °F), illustrating the improved densification associated with small powders. Source: Kim et al. ( Ref 1 ) More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 10.1 Data showing sintered density versus hold time and peak temperature for 17-4 PH stainless steel. Over a peak temperature of 1320 °C (2410 °F), almost all densification occurs prior to the isothermal hold, corresponding to zero time. More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 10.28 Sintered density versus temperature for 10 °C/min (18 °F/min) heating using two median particle sizes. The smaller 0.2 μm powder shows lower-temperature densification, but after 60 min at peak temperature (1400 °C or 2550 °F), the two powders reach essentially the same density More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... interparticle friction and optimizes densification. Double Pressing-Double Sintering Double Pressing-Double Sintering is sometimes used to achieve high sintered densities. The first sintering is carried out at a relatively low temperature, which produces sufficient ductility for the second pressing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... in consolidating normal-purity grades of beryllium is related to the oxide coating and contaminants, especially silicon. Silicon is a sintering aid that permits full densification of the hot pressed billets using hot pressing conditions. Sintering can be performed, but the properties of the sintered billets...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... shape, oversized for the anticipated sintering shrinkage. The combination of temperature-pressure and tool actions depends on the forming machine. Indeed, the success of each shaping approach critically depends on matching the forming conditions, tooling and tool motions, feedstock viscosity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... by diffusion of carbon from graphite in the powder mix. Densification of PM compacts can be achieved in sintering. The degree of densification depends on the sintering parameters and the alloys involved. Generally, higher sintering temperatures and longer sintering times promote densification of ferrous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... of particles that are substantially noncrystalline acicular powder. A powder composed of needle in character. or sliverlike particles. angle of repose. The angular contour that a activated sintering. A sintering process during powder pile assumes. which the rate of sintering is increased, for example...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... is larger than the matrix particle size to improve strength. However, large fibers hinder sintering densification; thus, higher sintering temperatures or longer sintering times are employed to compensate for the retarded sintering with fiber additions. One idea is to employ fast isostatic pressing during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter covers the basic steps of the powder metallurgy process, including powder manufacture, powder blending, compacting, and sintering. It identifies important powder characteristics such as particle size, size distribution, particle shape, and purity. It compares and contrasts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
.... At such high temperatures, the particles bond and densify by atomic diffusion. Because of the densification, the component shrinks to approach full density. On cooling, the sintered component is then ready for finishing operations, such as heat treating, painting, electroplating, machining, or polishing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... ... Cold densification (press, sinter, cold form, heat treat) 7.6–7.8 Cold forming improves fatigue and wear resistance Powder forging (press, sinter, forge, heat treat) 7.6–7.8+ Limited to spur, bevel, and face gears although trials with helical gears have been done ( Ref 2 ) Powder injection...