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single-element transducer-based system

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of (a) an electronic clock; (b) an electronic signal generator, or pulser; (c) a sending transducer; (d) a receiving transducer; (e) an echo signal amplifier; and, (f) a display device. In the most widely used version of pulse echo systems, a single transducer acts alternatively as a sending and receiving transducer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... to a piezoelectric crystal in the transducer, causing the crystal to vibrate and convert the electrical pulses into mechanical vibrations (sound waves). The piezoelectric crystal will also convert the returning sound waves back into electrical energy when the sound is received from the part. A single crystal can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.9781627084352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... or concentration of impurities or alloying elements that arises during the solidification of the weld Lamellar tearing: A type of cracking that occurs in the base metal or heat affected zone (HAZ) of restrained weld joints that is the result of inadequate ductility in the through-the-thickness direction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... SCC detection and sizing in stainless steel piping systems include the introduction of special transducers for intergranular SCC detection, the use of advanced sizing techniques based on crack-tip diffraction, and the increased level of personnel training and qualification. In addition, a number...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... Typically, a single acoustic transducer is mechanically scanned to form a C-scan image, and the sample and transducer are acoustically coupled by de-ionized water. Broad-band acoustic pulses are focused to a point within the IC package ( Fig. 2 ). The pulse repetition rate is typically limited to 10 kHz due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... and piezoelectric force sensors are the most commonly used force-monitoring devices. Load Cells A load cell is a force transducer that converts force into an electric signal. Although there are different types of load cells, strain-gage-based load cells ( Fig. 15.1 ) are the most commonly used type. Strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., rejection is based on the presence of flaw indications exceeding those from the reference notch. Reworking and reinspection are generally permitted if other requirements, such as minimum wall thickness, are satisfied. Other refinements are included in, or can be added to, the inspection system. For example...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and accounts for much of the uncertainty concerning the constitution of high-melting-point alloy systems. In addition, it is important that the temperature-measuring element be in good thermal contact with the specimen and that it be not so large in comparison with the sample that it carries away a significant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... be contrasted to nonelectric-based ones, such as fossil-fuel heating, in which problems such as those associated with thermal inertia of the furnace make quick response, process control, and high-speed automation more difficult. The important elements of almost all process-control systems for induction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... of the actuator, the flow rating of the servovalve, and the noise level present in the system electronics. A typical servohydraulic UTM system is shown in Fig. 4 . Fig. 4 Servohydraulic testing machine and load frame with a dedicated microprocessor-based controller Hydraulic actuators are available...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of associated noise, producing a record of emissions over time. The emissions are difficult to define, because of their wide amplitude and frequency range. Moreover, the response of the transducers has an overriding effect on the signals. In most conventional systems, the analysis of emissions is simplified...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and MEMS are discussed in [36] [37] . The combination of design improvements and increased customer awareness to MEMS handling have greatly reduced the occurrence of stiction, though it remains a reliability concern especially in MEMS systems that have elements that touch by design. Of course...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of pressure systems equipment integrity. The recent arrival of goal-setting legislation and standards enables the planning of inspections to be based on the assessed risks, thus allowing a degree of flexibility when deciding on a suitable written scheme of inspection in terms of the equipment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., aluminum, titanium, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium result in the commercial alloys used in today’s gas turbine engines. Some alloying elements have single-function importance, whereas others provide multiple functions. For example, chromium is primarily added to nickel-base...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... or systems that are generally too complex to inspect using other NDE techniques. However, operational or extraneous noise is often difficult to distinguish from crack growth. To compensate for the low amplitude of emission stemming from SCC, a considerably greater number of transducers than normal often must...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... particular system depends on the size of the actuator, the flow rating of the servovalve, and the noise level present in the system electronics. A typical servohydraulic UTM system is shown in Fig. 9 . Fig. 9 Servohydraulic testing machine and load frame with a dedicated microprocessor-based...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... to imperfections originating in the ingot. Chemical Segregation The elements in a cast alloy are seldom distributed uniformly. Even unalloyed metals contain random amounts of various types of impurities in the form of tramp elements or dissolved gases that are seldom distributed uniformly. Therefore...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... in the liquidus curve (for gold-nickel alloys), are used primarily in vacuum brazing applications and therefore require no alloying elements to serve as fluxing agents. The third group of alloys, which is probably the most widely used, is based on the copper-silver binary eutectic system that is modified...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... amount of time. A more efficient approach is one that makes use of numerical models based on finite-element analysis (FEA). Finite-element analysis models may be used to determine vibration characteristics such as natural frequencies and associated mode shapes of the housing structure. To ensure...