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single-crystal X-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and the detection of lattice imperfections. The rotating single-crystal method uses a constant wavelength beam while the diffracting crystal is rotated. This method is used mostly for determining the structure of single crystals. The Debye-Scherrer powder method uses an x-ray beam of constant wavelength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... techniques are used to determine phase diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement, and magnetic analysis methods, among others. All of these methods are based on the principle that when a phase transition in an alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...-ray diffraction is a unique, nondestructive, fast, and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of crystalline solids. X-ray diffraction has also proven to be a useful tool in the analysis of materials that have the same chemical composition but different crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms, crystalline imperfections, and the formation of surface or planar defects. It also discusses the use of X-ray diffraction for determining crystal structure. References References A.1 Campbell F.C. , Elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... silicon. EEL spectrum from silicon exhibits several plasmon peaks (at multiples of 17 eV) because it is recorded from a thicker area of the sample. Figure 8 A single crystal diffraction pattern recorded with electron beam oriented parallel to the [110] direction in silicon. Selected diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... used; one angstrom = 0.1 nm). When the monochromatic beam strikes the sample, some of the x-rays are diffracted from certain planes of the crystal lattice of the specimen, and the angles at which they are diffracted are unique to the spacing of the atoms that are present in the crystal. The diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... diffraction of x-rays incident on a crystal, and it yields a more precise quantitative estimate of the elements. Details pertaining to both these techniques can be found in Ref 5.1 and 5.2 . A unique aspect of SEM is that it is able to image in both the secondary electron (SE) mode and the backscattered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... by their XRD patterns ( Ref 33 – 37 ). X-ray diffraction analysis is needed when the percent crystallinity may be related to field problems. The crystalline portion of a polymer will diffract when exposed to x-rays, for example, Cu k-alpha at 1.542 Å. Crystal diffraction follows Bragg’s law: n λ = 2 d...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Microanalysis , Third Edition , Plenum Press , New York , 2007 1.4 Cullity B. D. and Stock D. R. , Elements of X-ray Diffraction , Third Edition , Prentice Hall , Upper Saddle River, NJ , 2001 1.5 Vickerman J. C. , Surface Analysis-The Principle Techniques , John Wiley...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and even perform chemical analysis of points or regions of the sample. Two methods are widely used to analyze the energy spectrum of the x-rays. The first one is a method called wavelength dispersion spectroscopy (WDS), in which the spectrum of emitted x-rays is directed toward a crystal of known plane...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... in A-15 compounds . In Electron-Phonon Interactions and Phase Transitions (ed. Riste T. ). Plenum Press , New York , 181 – 193 . 10.1007/978-1-4615-8921-1_11 Vieland L. J. ( 1972 ). X-ray investigation of the lattice transformation in single crystal Nb 3 Sn . Phys. Chem. Solids...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... Memorial Institute , Columbus, Ohio , 1964 10.16 Lang A.R. , Studies of Individual Dislocations in Crystals by X-Ray Diffraction Microradiography, J. Appl. Phys . , Vol 30 , 1959 , p 1748 – 1755 10.1063/1.1735048 10.17 Taira S. and Honda K. , X-Ray Investigation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... may be detected by vacuum emission equipment.) Full range of photomultipliers may not be available. C.6 Electron probe microanalysis Analysis by crystal spectrometry or energy dispersion of x-rays emitted as a result of applying a focused (1 μm diam) electron beam to a surface Qualitative...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... and characteristics of the diffracting crystal). Alternatively, the counter can be set to a series of predetermined wavelengths corresponding to the elements in the sample (presuming this is known or has already been determined), and the numbers of x-rays at each of these wavelengths counted for a specific length...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... in austenite compared with ferrite. The interstitial holes in austenite are much larger than those in ferrite. FIG. 5.5 Edgar C. Bain was the first to study the crystal structure of steel by x-ray diffraction. The next major scientific advance in hardened steel was the discovery through precision...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... researcher from the generation of the graduating classes of 1910 to 1915 was Edgar C. Bain ( FIG. 10.14 ). He became well known for his work on highspeed steel, the effect of chromium in steel, and his pioneering work using x-ray diffraction to define the crystal structure of solid solutions. His most...