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single-crystal X-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... system for the other crystalline systems. There are a number of x-ray techniques that have been developed for studying crystalline structures. The Laue method uses a narrow collimated beam of white x-rays that strike a stationary single crystal. It is not suitable for the determination of lattice...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Image
Published: 01 June 1983
Figure 9.25 Neutron-scattering ( Axe and Shirane, 1973 ), magnetic-susceptibility ( Rehwald et al., 1972 ), and x-ray diffraction ( Vieland et al., 1971 ) measurements on two Nb 3 Sn single crystals. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... for the study of crystalline materials using x-ray diffraction (XRD) principles. The scattering of x-rays by atoms in a crystalline solid produces a diffraction pattern, which contains information about the atomic arrangement within the crystal. An amorphous material such as glass does not have a periodic array...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of phase diagrams. A simple XRD pattern can be used for phase identification. X-ray diffraction can also be used for the establishment of the loci of phase boundaries. For instance, in a two-component system, lattice parameters can vary with composition within a single-phase region but are invariant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... At last, the metallurgists had a powerful new tool for determining the internal structure of metals. Among the earliest Americans to apply x-ray diffraction to the study of metals was Edgar C. Bain. He showed that steel heated to the hardening temperature had a different crystal structure. See chapter 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... is used mostly for determining the structure of single crystals. The Debye-Scherrer powder method uses an x-ray beam of constant wavelength and a specimen consisting of thousands of tiny crystals. Because there are a large number of powder particles with many different orientations, the diffracted beam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., Å, is commonly used; one angstrom = 0.1 nm). When the monochromatic beam strikes the sample, some of the x-rays are diffracted from certain planes of the crystal lattice of the specimen, and the angles at which they are diffracted are unique to the spacing of the atoms that are present in the crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... that the silicon crystal structure is diamond cubic and the x, y and z axes are interchangeble. A cross-section image recorded with the electron beam oriented parallel to <110> crystallograpic directions of silicon substrate would ensure perpendicularity of cross-sectioned device features with respect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... Bragg equation. n 2d sin , where n is the order of re ection, is the wavelength of x-rays, d is the distance between lattice planes, and is the Bragg angle. See also order (in x-ray re ection). Bragg method. A method of x-ray diffraction in which a single crystal is mounted on a spectrometer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Spectroscopy (EDS). In Electron Probe Microanalyzers the spectra are resolved with better resolution by diffraction of the characteristic Xrays from single crystals in a process referred to as Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) ( Ref 1.3 ). Auger Electron Spectroscopy The X-ray spectra generated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., for example, Cu k-alpha at 1.542 Å. Crystal diffraction follows Bragg’s law: n λ = 2 d  sine  θ where n is a constant (usually 1), λ is the wavelength of the x-ray, d is the interplanar spacing of the crystalline material, and sine θ is the experimental diffraction angle. A powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... spectroscopy is based on the phenomenon of Bragg diffraction of x-rays incident on a crystal, and it yields a more precise quantitative estimate of the elements. Details pertaining to both these techniques can be found in Ref 5.1 and 5.2 . A unique aspect of SEM is that it is able to image in both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... extraction ( Ref 7 ). Electron microprobes use single-crystal spectrometers set to diffract only the radiation from a given element, a process referred to as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) and which is capable of high-precision chemical analysis. Characteristic x-ray intensity from the chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdktmse.t56100001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-470-3
.... 5 ). The source and detector are rotated around the sample at different angles to determine if Bragg’s law is satisfied. When it is, an x-ray is detected at the detector. The peak magnitude and angle provide information about the crystal, and the crystal structure can be identified. Elevated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... Two methods are widely used to analyze the energy spectrum of the x-rays. The first one is a method called wavelength dispersion spectroscopy (WDS), in which the spectrum of emitted x-rays is directed toward a crystal of known plane spacing. The angle at which diffraction occurs depends...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... the angle and characteristics of the diffracting crystal). Alternatively, the counter can be set to a series of predetermined wavelengths corresponding to the elements in the sample (presuming this is known or has already been determined), and the numbers of x-rays at each of these wavelengths counted...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Scale (approximate dimensions) Characterization techniques Crystalline structure (Å) X-ray diffraction Transmission electron microscopy (electron diffraction) Structural features in the range of 10–100 nm (dislocations, stacking faults, ultrafine grains, etc.) Transmission electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... and Sutton (1969) ; Hatt and Rivlin (1968) ; Brown et al. (1964) ; Jepson et al. (1970) . Figure 9.25 Neutron-scattering ( Axe and Shirane, 1973 ), magnetic-susceptibility ( Rehwald et al., 1972 ), and x-ray diffraction ( Vieland et al., 1971 ) measurements on two Nb 3 Sn single crystals...