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single-angle diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... interference of the scattered rays 1′ and 2′ occurs at an angle to the planes, if the path length difference between 1- P -1′ and 2- Q -2′ (i.e., S Q ¯ + Q T ¯ ) is equal to a whole number, n , of wavelengths. This condition for diffraction is: n λ = S Q ¯ + Q T...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... convergence angle, . Figure 8 shows a schematic of these and other parameters including the camera length, CL (i.e., the distance FIG. 8 Schematics showing acceptance angle, , as a function of annular detector configuration. Parameters are defined in the text. (a) Annular detector with no mask. (b) Single...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... be explored on the fly. For example, rather than using a single round aperture for ADF imag- ing, multiple apertures can be used to simultaneously capture signals from different diffraction spots much like the aluminum foil mask that was used to FIG. 2 (a) Small annular mask to be programmed to the DMD...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of crystalline and amorphous semiconductor device features. The phase contrast supplemented by mass-thickness contrast is primarily used during high-resolution imaging of sub-nanometer device features and defects. Diffraction in Silicon Devices Most semiconductor devices are fabricated on single crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... rays 1′ and 2′ occurs at an angle to the planes, if the path length difference between 1- P -1 and 2- Q -2 (i.e., SQ ¯ + QT ¯ ) is equal to a whole number, n , of wavelengths. This condition for diffraction is: (Eq A.23) n λ = SQ ¯ + QT ¯ n λ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... amplitude obtained with a frequency of 1.5 MHz, numerous reexaminations were required to verify the measurements ( Ref 16.7 ). Single- versus Dual-Element Angle-Beam Search Units A dual-element angle-beam search unit was developed and found to substantially improve intergranular SCC detection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Crystalline structure, short- and long-range ordering, percent crystallinity, polymer blend/copolymer Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Crystallite size and shape, long-range periodicity Scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... is pressed over a ground glass sample holder so as to have a smooth flat surface. 5.7.3 Bragg’s Law and Diffraction of X-Rays When a beam of x-rays is focused on a single isolated atom, the electrons around the atom start to oscillate with the same frequency as the incoming beam. In almost all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... a primary electron beam in the TEM penetrates this crystal lattice of BCC cells, the beam is diffracted. The angle the electron beam is diffracted is determined by the spacing of the atomic planes in the lattice. The spacing of the atomic planes of iron is unique, because it is based on the distance between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
...) of the diffraction peak is estimated from the Scherrer formula ( Ref 5.26 ) for particle size broadening: (Eq 5.1) d = 0.9 λ/β cos θ where d is the particle size, λ is the wavelength of the x-ray, β is the FWHM of the x-ray peak (in radians), and θ is the angle of the peak. Typically, the Scherrer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of phase diagrams. A simple XRD pattern can be used for phase identification. X-ray diffraction can also be used for the establishment of the loci of phase boundaries. For instance, in a two-component system, lattice parameters can vary with composition within a single-phase region but are invariant...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... Bragg equation. n 2d sin , where n is the order of re ection, is the wavelength of x-rays, d is the distance between lattice planes, and is the Bragg angle. See also order (in x-ray re ection). Bragg method. A method of x-ray diffraction in which a single crystal is mounted on a spectrometer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of microscope showing nomenclature. adapted by permission from www.molecularexpressions.com . Microscope Parts and Nomenclature Stereo Microscopes One effective form of depth perception comes from having each eye view from a slightly different angle causing image shift or parallax to each eye...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... properties of various size rounds of a single heat of 4340 steel after various heat treatments illustrating mass effects Table 17.1 Mechanical properties of various size rounds of a single heat of 4340 steel after various heat treatments illustrating mass effects Size round Tensile strength Yield...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... not penetrate into medium II, and only the shear wave is transmitted. This is used to separate longitudinal and shear waves to have only a single wave velocity traveling in medium II. Source: Ref 1 Critical Angles If the angle of incidence (α 1 in Fig. 15 ) is small, sound waves propagating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdktmse.t56100001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-470-3
... reactions occur, and how x-ray diffraction identifies the actual phases present. It demonstrates the use of tie lines for determining phase composition at different temperatures and the application of the level rule to calculate phase fractions. It also discusses the CALPHAD method and presents computed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... be dominant. This characteristic of a packet means that most of the laths, separated by low-angle boundaries or perhaps retained austenite, have the same crystal orientation and that a packet may be considered as a single grain or crystal, albeit a grain divided by many low-angle boundaries and containing...