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shrinkage

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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 11.4 Elm board warped because the shrinkage in the tangential direction is greater than in the radial direction (bottom). Splitting when a warped board is flattened (top). Source: Ref 11.1 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.5 Pipe or shrinkage cavity in the top of an ingot. Longitudinal section. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.44 Solidification shrinkage in ingots. Right, an ingot without hot topping. Solidification progresses uniformly along the walls of the mold and a large primary pipe and secondary pipe can be the result of the process. Insulating and/or exothermic materials in the hot top slow down its More
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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 8.7 A block-mold analysis illustration. Longer feeding time and less shrinkage risk at the rim/spoke junction is predicted through block die solidification analysis More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 9 Example of a shrinkage pore More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 10 Primary shrinkage cavity forming large voids of irregular shapes on the component surface. (a) Schematic drawing. (b) Shrinkage cavity compensated for riser More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 11 Schematic representation of the three regimens of shrinkage: in the liquid state, during solidification, and in the solid state. Source: Ref 14 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 13 Primary and secondary shrinkage cavities More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 21 (a) Micrograph showing cracks connecting shrinkage pores (indicated by arrows) in the internal component of the sample. (b) Detail of the box in (a), where an inclusion is indicated by the arrow More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 9.15 Rounded tips of dendritic crystal branches exposed at shrinkage porosity in the equiaxed solidification zone of an as-cast billet of 4140 steel. SEM micrograph. Courtesy of E.J. Schultz. Source: Ref 9.47 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 9.16 Another view of dendrite branch tips at shrinkage porosity in equiaxed solidification zone of an as-cast 4140 steel billet. SEM micrograph. Source: Ref 9.47 More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 5.6 Scanning electron macrograph of dendrites in the shrinkage region of a steel casting. Original magnification: 42×. Source: Ref 5.1 More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 16 Shrinkage void on field fracture surface of polycarbonate. 12× More
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Published: 01 November 2011
Fig. 5.12 Dimensional changes occurring in weldments: (a) transverse shrinkage in a groove weld, and (b) longitudinal shrinkage in a groove weld; and distribution of longitudinal residual stress: (c) angular change in a groove weld, and (d) angular change in a fillet weld. Source: Ref 5.7 More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 8.10 Sintering shrinkage data for 0.78 μm aluminum nitride powder sintered in nitrogen at various time-temperature combinations. Initial shrinkage is fast, but with extended time, the shrinkage rate declines, and further lower temperatures reduce the shrinkage rate. Source: Komeya et al More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 8.11 Dilatometry data on the shrinkage versus temperature during heating for 4 μm Fe-2Ni powder, showing significant slowing for sintering after the phase transformation from alpha (body-centered cubic) to gamma (face-centered cubic) crystal structure More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 8.21 Early-stage sintering shrinkage for 45 nm UO 2 powder at 838 °C (1540 °F). The solid line represents a one-third power law relation between shrinkage and hold time. More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 8.25 Sintering shrinkage and density as a function of peak temperature (10 min hold) for 10 μm powder corresponding to the 17-4 PH composition More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 10.19 Dilatometry sintering shrinkage for 10 μm 17-4 PH stainless steel powder, including both heating and cooling, comparing the computer-simulated dimensional change with the experimentally measured behavior. Source: Kwon et al. ( Ref 12 ) More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 10.36 Data for surface area loss and sintering shrinkage during constant rate heating (5 °C/min, or 9 °F/min). If sintering were only by surface diffusion, then there would be no shrinkage while surface area is eliminated. On the other hand, grain-boundary diffusion leads to surface area More