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shock loading

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Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 6.12 (Part 2) (e) 0.04% C, annealed (0.04C, wt%). Subjected to explosive shock loading. Picral 1000×. (f) to (h) 0.1% C, normalized (0.09C-0.01Si-0.45Mn. Necked region of tensile testpiece. (f) Picral (comparatively heavy etch). 2000×. (g) Scanning electron micrograph. Picral More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.8 Twins produced inside ferrite grains by shock loading the material at high impact velocities. (Neumann lines; Ref 4 ) in a very low carbon steel. Etchant: nital. Neumann lines are named after the German scientist Franz Ernst Neumann (1798–1895), who observed these twins More
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 17 Steel bar with crack in unexpected position. Originally shock loaded in compression. Threaded portion diameter is approximately 2 cm. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... produces a wear- and fatigue-resistant surface on gear teeth and is used in applications where gears are not subjected to high shock loads or contact stress. It is useful for gears that need to maintain their surface hardness at elevated temperatures. Gears used in industrial, automotive, and aerospace...
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
. 4000×. (c) and (d) 1.4% C, partly spheroidized (1.46C-0.14Si-0.33Mn, wt%). Necked region of tensile testpiece. (c) 2% nital. 2000×. (d) Scanning electron micrograph. 2% nital. 5000×. (e) 0.04% C, annealed (0.04C, wt%). Subjected to explosive shock loading. Picral 1000×. (f) to (h) 0.1% C More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... steel NITRIDING is a case-hardening process used for alloy steel gears and is quite similar to case carburizing. The process primarily produces a wear- and fatigue-resistant surface on gear teeth and is frequently used in applications where gears are not subjected to high shock loads or contact...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Abstract Tube hydroforming is a material-forming process that uses pressurized fluid to plastically deform tubular materials into desired shapes. It is widely used in the automotive industry for making exhaust manifolds, catalytic converters, shock absorber housings, and other parts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... . Each of these trucks provides friction control of the load spring action that permits the use of softer, long-travel springs. This combination of friction, snubbing, and soft springs protects the car body from shocks. Though details may differ, friction is applied through hardened cast steel shoes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... effectiveness in 3 to 6 months; those that shed water completely may be used significantly longer. Tempering Because tempering a carbonitrided case at 425 °C (795 °F) and above results in a marked increase in notch toughness (see Table 1 ), parts that are to be subjected to repeated shock loading...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... 7 ). Flyer Plate and short Duration Pulse Loading Traditionally, flat plate impact tests have been used to obtain high strain rate yield data, shock wave response data, and equation of state data for materials undergoing uniaxial strain. Uniaxial strain refers to a three-dimensional state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
..., but the levels could not be maintained after shock loading. It is believed that this was due to excessive clearance between the mating splines, which allowed changes in the position of the coupling relative to the ring gear. Changes in the phase-angle relationship between the vibrations at the No. 5 bearing...
Book Chapter

By Soumya Subramonian
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., staggering punches would minimize the reverse load. Punch stagger is explained in an earlier section. Nitrogen cylinder cushions can be built to absorb the shock energy during snap-thru. However, this would require additional forward tonnage equivalent to the cushion capacity. Hydraulic shock dampers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... of 100,000 h under high load based on a vibration limit of 10 g . In many cases, with knowledge of the source of vibration, whether it is a defective gear, pinion, or bearing, a poorly-performing gearbox can be reworked and successfully put back in service. Case 1: Failure of an Offset Parallel Gearbox...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Wear resistance: The abrasion resistance of a tool often determines its useful life. Shock resistance: In many operations, tools are loaded rapidly and must therefore be capable of sustaining stresses created during both mechanical and thermal shock loading. Toughness is a measure of the ability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1985
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sagf.t63420129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-452-9
... case that maintains the initial percentage of carbon. It may have been quenched and tempered, or it may remain as annealed, depending on the heat treating processes used. The required properties of the core are few. The core must be ductile enough to absorb shock loads without fracturing, and hard...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... conditioning technology and the automotive sector as well as aerospace applications. The technology allows fabricating complex parts with small corner radii and reduced springback effects ( Ref 11.20 ). Due to loading by the shock wave, wrinkling is prevented during the drawing of conical workpieces. Examples...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... are markedly influenced by strain-rate sensitivity (and, therefore, the crystal structure) and the ability to absorb the energy of the shock loading without macroscopic deformation (which is related to the stacking fault energy). In multiphase alloys, the volume fraction, size, and dispersion of a second phase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... a 4340 steel with %C increased from 0.4 to 0.7. S Steels The “S” stands for shock resistance. The high toughness needed for shock load resistance is obtained by reducing the %C in these steels to low levels, which also results in the low wear resistance and hot hardness of the S steels. O Steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., such as H19 and H21, have less ductility than medium-alloy hot work steels such as H11. This explains why H19 and H21 have lower toughness than that of H11. Fracture toughness and resistance to shock loading are often measured by a notched-bar Charpy test. This test measures the amount of energy absorbed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... . The origin was at one end of the tooth and not at the midlength. There could have been several reasons for this point of initiation; in this instance, a severe shock load had twisted the parts until a momentary overload was applied at the end of the tooth, causing a crack to form. The crack became a high...