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semi-continuous furnaces

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
...) and even larger. Fig. 15-10 Car bottom heat-treating furnace with miscellaneous castings Continuous furnaces are particularly useful when high-production quantities of similar castings are to be treated. These furnaces are usually of the pusher type with a roller hearth ( Figure 15-11...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... the presses and auxiliary equipment for tube extrusion, induction furnaces for billet processing, handling systems for copper and aluminum alloy products, extrusion cooling systems, and age-hardening ovens. Next, the chapter describes the principles and applications of equipment for the production of aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... processes use a combination of both induction (for melting) and channel (for holding) furnaces to reduce temperature fluctuations that result from frequent charging. Cupolas are used for gray cast irons and white irons, where a continuous supply of one or two grades of metal is needed. Typical examples...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... tools at lower cost or with improved quality also are reviewed. Primary Melting Electric arc furnace (EAF) melting continues to be the principal process for the production of tool steels. However, significant changes have occurred in the melt area since the fourth edition of this book...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... mix. The continuous growth of the number of EAF melt shops and its share of world steel production in the past decades as well as the introduction of bigger furnaces (200–250 t) are evidence of the relevance of this process. The flexibility of the arc furnace combined with the possibility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... (IEO 2016) report, there will be continued increase in total coal-fired electricity generation worldwide from 8.6 trillion kilowatt hours in 2012 to 9.7 trillion kilowatt hours in 2020 and 10.6 trillion kilowatt hours by 2040 ( Ref 2.1 ). Coal-based thermal power plants therefore still have a major...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... of the semi nished products have THE AIM OF EVERY EXTRUSION increased and will continue to increase. They PLANT is the economic production of compet- will be expected to provide a greater product and itive products to the required quality. production competence and be responsible for the product quality...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... continues until the entire charge is molten. At this point, the initial charge volume is reduced to that of the molten metal, and the furnace may be opened and the remaining portions of the charge added (the recharge). This additional charge is melted by the arcs until the entire bath is molten. Further...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... the metal into the mold cavity. Normally, a pressure rate of 1 psi/second is a compromise. The furnace level continuously changes with each shot, making it more difficult to accurately transition from stage one to stage two. Some wheel casters program the pressure ramp to be adjusted once in about five...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... atmospheres require a confining vessel and this invariably means a furnace of some type. Furnace joining also offers other advantages: The process may be easily automated for either batch or continuous production because the heating conditions can be accurately controlled and reproduced without the need...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... the solutionizing heat treatment operation, when the high temperature of nearly 540 °C (1000 °F) breaks down the core bond and the sand can be poured out. A certain section of the continuous solutionizing furnace is opened to accommodate this operation, and the castings are put back into the solutionizing furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.9781627082808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... introduced in this chapter. Fig. 8.1 Classification of steels However, it is important to point out that steels are classified in many other ways, too. For example, classification may be based on: The steelmaking method , such as open hearth, basic oxygen process, or electric furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
.... Proprietary and Semi-Proprietary Grades Many of the proprietary alloys or proprietary compositions that are now in the public domain, can be conveniently classified into three groups, with the following base compositions: HK-20Ni-25Cr HP-35Ni-25Cr 45Ni-30Cr The nominal compositions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... treatment of tool steels requires meticulous attention to details. Furnace and workpiece temperatures must be accurately controlled, particularly when the steel is austenitized for an annealing treatment or hardening treatment. Similarly, the holding and soaking times at temperature must be accurately...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... with a continuous temperature increase. The steam then leaves the furnace waterwall tubes and is further heated in superheaters before entering into the steam turbines. There are several methods for burning coal. Firing with pulverized coal has been the most dominant method for utility boilers. Coal is burned...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...%) (hydrogen peroxide) Excellent reagent which will color carbides a light tan. The color variation will assist in differentiating small carbides on ferrite grain boundaries (see Fig. 2.17). (continued) 304 / Metallographer s Guide Etchants for carbon and alloy steels (continued) Etching reagent Composition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.9781627082679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., the survey of heat treatment furnaces to determine temperature homogeneity is frequently overlooked, or is only done when explicitly required by a client or a standard. For the whole volume of the furnace to maintain reasonable variations of temperature with respect to that measured by the control...