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secondary steelmaking practices

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... practices have changed over time, and describes secondary refining processes such as degassing, homogenization, rinsing, and remelting. blast furnace electric arc furnace The classical definition of steel is “an iron-carbon alloy with up to [about] 2% carbon” ( Ref 1 ). This limit is taken...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... steels became the dominant type during World War II and after. It was now 40 years since the discovery of the high-speed steel heat treatment by Taylor and White and 15 years since Bain and Jeffries published their theory of secondary hardening. While practical development of the Mo high-speed steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... products by primary processing: inclusions and chemical segregation. Inclusions are nonmetallic compounds introduced during steelmaking and casting, and segregation is a result of chemistry variations produced during dendritic solidification of steels. Such segregation may cause the microstructural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., wire, and forgings. The EAF is now used mainly to melt scrap, and the resulting molten steel is refined in separate ladles in processing referred to as secondary, or ladle steelmaking ( Ref 2.10 , 2.18 ). Ladle metallurgy may involve many steps, including stirring by argon gas bubbling to homogenize...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... identification with an in-depth study of steelmaking and casting practices in the foundry. Horwath and Goodrich (Ref 17) and Svoboda et al. (Ref 18) have studied macroinclusions and identified that these kind of inclusions can result in excessive casting repairs or rejected castings. To reduce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Classification of steels However, it is important to point out that steels are classified in many other ways, too. For example, classification may be based on: The steelmaking method , such as open hearth, basic oxygen process, or electric furnace methods ( Chapter 5 ) The deoxidation practice...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... is tilted to allow the floating slag to be poured off. The furnace is then tilted in the other direction, and the molten steel is tapped into a ladle, where it either undergoes secondary steelmaking or is transported to the caster. The modern electric arc furnace typically makes approximately 136,000 kg...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... directions is much less than in the longitudinal direction. Cerium can be substituted for manganese to form sulfides that are much more resistant to elongation during rolling. However, with the development of steelmaking practices that produce very low-sulfur steel, manganese is becoming less important...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... produced by this method, although with decreasing frequency, and large quantities still exist in engineering structures. It increasingly has become common practice, moreover, to continuously cast slabs or billets that can be rolled directly in a secondary mill. Only fully killed steels can be cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...), or in the solid (type III). Type I inclusions are the largest and are globular. Except when they are deliberately kept to improve machinability, they are physically removed by various steelmaking practices. Type II inclusions form in interdendritic spaces as the solubility of oxygen and sulfur drop...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... continuous casting hot cracking ingot casting macrosegregation microporosity nonmetallic inclusions solidification shrinkage steel Modern steelmaking and refining processes are capable of producing large masses of highly homogeneous steel, both chemically and thermally. However, these liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... It describes the design and operation of melting furnaces as well as melting practices and the role of fluxing. It also discusses casting methods, nonferrous casting alloys, and atomization processes used to make metal powders. atomization foundry casting melting furnaces nonferrous casting alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... iron either softer or harder, metallurgical theory lagged behind until relatively modern times. In 1864 Henry Clifton Sorby first used a microscope to study metals. This was followed by Albert Sauveur trying to convince American steelmakers that something practical was to be gained from microscopic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... steel grade with more homogeneous composition. Fig. 19.8 Influence of sulfur content and steelmaking practice on temperature ranges for overheating and burning. Steelmaking practices are: consumable-electrode vacuum arc remelted (CEVAM), basic-electric (BE), and open-hearth (OH). Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Alloys , Vol 7 , Metals Handbook , 8th ed. , American Society for Metals , 1972 • The Heat Treaters Guide—Standard Practices and Procedures for Steel , American Society for Metals , 1982 • Heat Treating , Vol 4 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1991 • Krauss G...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
..., the temperature for burning is not much above that for overheating. When the sulfur content is low, the overheating temperature is lowered, thereby increasing the range between the overheating and burning temperatures. It is not good practice to weld parts before or after carburizing and hardening. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... better corrosion resistance Improve wear resistance Impart a fine grain size to the steel A semantic distinction can be made between alloying elements and residual elements; the latter are not intentionally added to the steel, but result from the raw materials and steelmaking practices used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides a practical understanding of heat treatments and how to employ them to optimize the properties and structures of cast irons and steels. It discusses annealing, normalizing, quenching, tempering, patenting, carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... References References 1. Elevated-Temperature Failures , lesson 7, ASM Practical Failure Analysis Course , ASM International , 2002 2. Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1986 , p 225 – 238 , 263 – 303 , 602 – 627 3. Creep and Stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... M. G. : “ Essential Factors in Conducting the Macroetching Test under Usual Practical Conditions of Production Work, ” Trans. Am. Soc. Steel Treat. , vol. 21 , 1933 , pp. 310 – 342 . 5. Magnusson E. : “ Primary Etching of Welds, ” Jernkontorets Ann. , vol. 131 , no. 6 , 1947...