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secondary damage mechanism

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract The power generating industry has become proficient at predicting how long a component will last under a given set of operating conditions. This chapter explains how such predictions are made in the case of boiler tubes. It identifies critical damage mechanisms, progressive failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... However, this region on the mating surface in the gear was intact ( Fig. CH48.4 ), and no mechanical damage, such as nicks or dents, was seen at the crack origin. Fig. CH48.3 Fractured segment. Note the secondary (post-fracture) damage at the fracture origin. Fig. CH48.4 (a) and (b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... showed deformation. The damages to the seal carrier and splined coupling were secondary in nature. Fig. CH44.1 Fractured drive shaft with damaged seal carrier and coupling Fig. CH44.2 Close-up view of the fracture surface. The fracture features are typical of tensile/bending overloads...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... to that seen elsewhere on the blade surface. This indicates that the dents were not caused freshly due to secondary damages, and they were present in the blade before the failure took place. This suggests that the cracks in the coating caused due to mechanical damage were responsible for the fatigue crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... in the wreckage and in the original structure must be recorded. Any other samples that can provide secondary or additional evidence must also be collected. The fracture surfaces must be handled very carefully because they can provide a fund of useful information about the mode and mechanism of fracture during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Combustion byproducts such as soot, ash, and abrasive particulates can inflict significant damage to boiler tubes through the cumulative effect of erosion. This chapter examines the types of erosion that occur on the fire side of boiler components and the associated causes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... failure was secondary or impact induced Low temperatures Cyclic stress exceeded the endurance limit of the material Check for proper strength, surface finish, assembly, and operation Prior damage by mechanical or corrosion modes may have initiated cracking Alignment, vibration, balance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter compares and contrasts the high-temperature behaviors of metals and composites. It describes the use of creep curves and stress-rupture testing along with the underlying mechanisms in creep deformation and elevated-temperature fracture. It also discusses creep-life...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... and direction of deformation are very important in any examination of fractured parts. The degree of deformation depends on the mechanical properties of the metal involved, as well as on the magnitude and type of force causing the deformation. Is there evidence of damage on the surface of the part from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... or changes in carbide spacings with creep-life expenditure. It has been observed that, in many structural applications, cavitation is the principal damage mechanism in brittle zones, weld HAZs, and high-stress regions in the base metal ( Ref 20 ). In other cases, carbide coarsening can provide a better...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... side strut Discussion Visual and macroscopic observations did not reveal any mechanical damage at the point of crack initiation in the starboard strut. No material flaws were seen under the microscope in the region of crack initiation. This indicates that the fatigue crack initiation was due...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... are unchanged by damage from the other mechanism. Finally, if there is a strong interaction, the lifetimes for both creep and fatigue are much shorter as a result of the interaction of the two. In this case, if lifetime is being predicted on the basis of the creep and fatigue data separately...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... voltages should be applied to the structures. Since most of the secondary electrons have energies of 2-4 eV and below, a probing voltage of +5V is o.k. A general rule for the probing voltage is “the higher the better” but at voltages above 7V we occasionally observed irreversible gate oxide damage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., or secondary creep, is essentially an equilibrium condition between the mechanisms of work hardening and recovery. The metal is still stretching under tension but not as rapidly as in the first stage. The duration of secondary creep depends upon the temperature and stress level on the metal, as shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to backscattered electrons. Figure 9 Variation in backscatter emission with atomic number Z. Figure 10(a) Secondary electron image of an aluminum line with a tungsten cap layer damaged by electromigration. Figure 10(b) Backscattered electron image of same area as Figure 10(a) . Note...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter reviews various ways to classify failure categories and summarizes the basic types, causes, and mechanisms of damage, with particular consideration given to whether the likelihood of the types of damage can or cannot be influenced by the heat treating of steel parts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Mechanical damages Explosive sabotage 2.2 Examples of Deficiency in Design Failures in structures can result from inadequacies in design, even with the use of the best material for construction. Such inadequacies can be introduced inadvertently in the original design itself or in any modification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... relationships is fully discussed in Chapter 5 . Consideration of Secondary Directions It is thus clear that once the effective hysteresis loop has been established, the mechanics of treating triaxiality is no more difficult than treating uniaxial loading. The method of establishing the magnitude...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.9781627083010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... or caustic gouging. The damage mechanism of boiler tubes by caustic corrosion or caustic gouging is discussed separately in this book. Under-Deposit Corrosion Under-deposit corrosion is a consequence of deposition that occurs on the preboiler and boiler sides of the heat recovery system generator...