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second law of thermodynamics

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... establishes the relationship between the heat absorbed and the work performed by a system, it places no restriction on the source of the heat or its flow direction. This restriction, however, is set by the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which was advanced by Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... M. , Lectures on Electrochemical Corrosion , Plenum Press , 1973 10.1007/978-1-4684-1806-4 11. Uhlig H.H. , Corrosion and Corrosion Control , John Wiley & Sons , 1971 The first law of thermodynamics may be written as: (Eq 2.1) dU = q − w where dU...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... dangers. The first danger that the thermodynamically stable species will not be achieved due to kinetic considerations. The second danger is that operative reactions might not be considered due to oversight or the lack of complete knowledge of the constituents in a complex environment. The potential...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...-conducting phase (water-based solution), a metallic phase (iron), and a gas phase O 2 ( g ). Second, electrons have been transferred from the metallic phase, iron to O 2 + H 2 O. Figure 1(a) shows the arrangement of an experimental setup in which Reaction 1 could proceed. Fig. 1 Schematic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... are moving toward the left because of limited margins. The Early Failure and Wearout Failure curves can be combined to give an indication of the total failure rate. The resulting curve thus has a shape similar to that of a bathtub viewed in cross section, and sums to represent the second (Stable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ). A second aggressive environmental pollutant for metals is SO 2 gas. It is found in urban and industrial atmospheres and, in the presence of oxygen, is easily converted to sulfuric acid in the condensed moisture layer on the metal surface. The sulfuric acid dissociates to give H + ions ( H...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Conf. Proc. , Book 2, KCI Publishing BV, Zutphen , The Netherlands , 1999 , p 563 47. Kelly J.C. and Wilson J.D. , Oxidation Rates of Some Heat Resistant Alloys , Heat-Resistant Materials II: Conf. Proc. Second International Conference on Heat-Resistant Materials , Natesan...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... ) The slower the diffusion (small d), the lower the limiting current and thus a larger contribution from the mass-transfer-dependent second term on the overpotential. In Chapter 2 , it was identified through the Pourbaix diagrams that there were conditions under which an alloy could be passive. In...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... they are very reactive. This occurs at the grain boundaries, where nucleation is favored, and depletes those regions of chromium, rendering them less corrosion resistant. A second effect is a loss of toughness due to these precipitates. The diffusion rates of carbon and nitrogen in ferrite are too high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... , High-Temperature Chloridation of Binary Fe-Cr Alloys at 1000 °C , High Temperature Corrosion 2: Advanced Materials and Coatings , Proc. Second International Symposium on High Temperature Corrosion of Advanced Materials and Coatings ( Les Embiez, France ), May 22–26, 1989 , Streiff R...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
..., equipment setup, advantages, limitations, and applications of first- and second-stage binder removal processes, as well as the factors influencing these processes. Cost issues associated with binder-removal technologies are also discussed. binder removal powder-binder techniques powder shaping...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... as misalignment, poor lubrication, and overloading, which constitute the greatest source of all gear failures, as shown in Table 2 ( Ref 7 ). Heat treatment was the second most often cited cause for failure. However, it is often difficult to detect the root cause of a specific failure under the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... reasons. First, through Faraday’s law, the anodic current density, i a , relates directly to corrosion intensity as mass loss per unit time per unit area, or to corrosion penetration rate as a linear dimension loss per unit time. Second, it is observed that interface potentials, E, are functions of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... in the derivation of Faraday’s law Consider that the corrosion current, I corr , is expressed in amperes (A) or coulombs (C) per second (s). The unit of positive electricity (equivalent to the magnitude of the charge on the electron but with opposite sign) has a charge of 1.60 × 10 –19...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... were tangible with an atomic weight , and later developed the law of multiple proportions, which states that if two elements can form more than one compound together, then the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of a small...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... second-layer terrace. The vacancy clusters grow with continued dissolution of “A” atoms, and, as a result, its overall diffusion decreases with time, resulting in a decreasing current. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) results support the mechanism of vacancy clustering and preferential attack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... calculated using Bragg’s law. In addition to the photographic methods, there are diffractometer methods that measure the intensity of the beam in counts per second diffracted from the specimen over a range of angles. A powdered or polycrystalline specimen consisting of many fine and randomly oriented...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the conditions under which copper-base alloys are susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and some of the environmental factors, such as temperature, pH, and corrosion potential, that influence crack growth and time to failure. It explains that, although...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... values of log |i net |, the branches become linear and correspond to the Tafel lines of Fig. 3.9(a) . This follows by noting in Eq 3.50 that as the positive overpotential increases, the first exponential term becomes larger as the second exponential term becomes smaller. At sufficiently large positive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4