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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of nondestructive hardness testing methods for metals, including electromagnetic impulse testing, photothermal testing, scratch hardness testing, and ultrasonic contact impedance testing. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... 2. “ Standard Test Method for Scratch Hardness of Materials Using a Diamond Stylus ,” ASTM G171, ASTM International , 2017 Selected References Selected References • Dillon C.P. , Corrosion Control in the Chemical Process Industries , MTI/Inco International , Houston , 1994...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., and the oxide layer cannot be seen. 200× Fig. 7.37 Micrographs of scratches on properly ground surfaces. (a) 120 grit. (b) 240 grit. (c) 320 grit. (d) 400 grit. (e) 600 grit papers. (f) 6 μm diamond. 50× Fig. 7.45 Macrograph of microstructure of a AISI/SAE 1020 welded plate as a two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... preparation for flatness, scratches, etc.) Etching of the surface with an adequate etchant Examination of the etched surface to evaluate the microstructure Recording of the microstructure (photographic) Selection of a Section to Be Examined Preparation of a Flat, Polished Surface in the Plane...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... by the mounting resin ( Fig. 3.1 ). This can lead to rounding of the crack edges and the entrainment of polishing compound, which can scratch the sample in further processing. If this occurs, the sample surface can be further removed or can be remounted using the techniques described in Chapter 2, “Sample...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... often have calcium carbonate (ground-up marble) as the abrasive, the whitening toothpastes can have aluminum oxide as the active abrasive. The abrasive particle sizes can be as large as 10 μm, which is a size large enough to cause scratching abrasion; particles below 1 μm usually polish. Tooth wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... wheel revolutions Solid particle erosion – (ASTM G76) 10 minutes (20 g) Scratch tests – one pass In general, tests should be long enough to establish a steady-state condition of wear or friction and avoid tests with months-long test times. Friction Measurement during Tribotest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... colloidal silica will easily yield a smooth surface of 2.5 nm RMS or better. The challenge with surface formation is contaminants from the package may break off and scratch the surface during the final polish process. In the days of primarily injection molded packages, backside thinning was fairly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... surface geometries, and the ASTM standard (D 637) was discontinued in 1995. Microscopic surface irregularities are usually measured by a microscope or a profilometer. They tend to fall into three categories: scratches, digs (or pits), and a mottled surface called orange peel. Scratches and digs may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... quality, any minor deficiencies, such as very fine polishing scratches, must not alter the structure to the point that correct interpretation becomes difficult. Many problems can be encountered, some of which are merely annoying, while others, if not recognized, are quite damaging. In situations where one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... of the 19th century. Table 1 records significant stages in the development of hardness testing. Historical overview Table 1 Historical overview 1640 Barba scratched precious stones with a file. 1722 R.A. Réaumur scratched steel with minerals and evaluated metals with two prisms positioned...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... abrasive grease has been used successfully to remove burrs, break sharp edges from edge radii, and blend chamfers. However, wire brushing of titanium to remove surface scratches or oxide films has resulted in serious defects. In one instance, a stiff-bristled wire brush removed surface scratches and oxide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Sliding Conditions at Elevated Temperatures , Wear , Vol 200 , 1996 , p 105 – 121 10.1016/S0043-1648(96)07282-1 32. Briscoe B.J. , Evans P.D. , Pelillo E. , and Sinha S.K. , Scratching Maps for Polymers , Wear , Vol 200 , 1996 , p 137 – 147 10.1016/S0043-1648(96...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., the field of view on the specimen is in focus. Electrolytic etch (60 ml nitric acid in 40 ml water, stainless steel cathode). 400× Fig. 5.38 Sketch of a ray diagram showing bright-field illumination. Note that light rays impinging on a scratch on the specimen surface are reflected away from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.9781627083232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... is approximately 3 min. The final fine polishing is performed using a 550 rpm wheel, an adhesive-backed rayon cloth, and a 0.05 μm deagglomerated alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) in a water slurry. Final polishing takes approximately 3 to 5 min. The specimen should appear flat and essentially free of most scratches...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... low strengths. Hardness also has other connotations—resistance to scratching, resistance to cutting, ability to cut softer materials, brittleness, lack of elastic damping, wear resistance, lack of malleability, magnetic retention, and so forth. Because of these different attributes, the myriad...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
...., pits or crevices) that concentrate the halide at discrete locations. In pitting, this localization can begin at microscopic heterogeneities such as scratches and inclusions. Above a given potential, negatively charged anions (e.g., Cl − ) accumulate on the metal surface and can cause breakdown...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... if the plating is scratched. (b) Tin plating offers no cathodic protection so the steel will corrode if the plating is scratched. Stress corrosion can occur in some metals when loaded in tension in a specific environment. Cracks run through grains and along grain boundaries. Brass is susceptible to stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... or, alternately, a stress intensifier, and the smaller the radius, the higher the stress concentration. Small surface scratches, even those too small to see by eye, can produce stress concentrations during bending, which are localized at the root of the scratch. If sufficiently high, the concentrated stress can...