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scrap charging

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., as in all subsequent steelmaking processes, is the oxidation and removal of carbon and other elements such as the high contents of silicon, manganese, and phosphorus in pig iron (hot metal) and scrap charges to produce liquid steel of the proper composition. Carbon is removed as CO gas, and oxides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... Specifications for metallic charge materials include: Chemistry: carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, and alloying elements Tramp element percentages Size of steel scrap Cleanliness The charge materials depend on the melting equipment that, in turn, depends upon the type of metal cast. Table 14.5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... quickly and the results confirmed before unloading the truck. The major raw materials used for molding and casting are: Metallic charge materials — large bulk amounts Pig iron (for gray iron and ductile iron) Steel scrap (plates, bars, and railroad scrap) Briquetted steel turnings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... during the process, with undesirable effects on the mechanical properties of the steel ( Ref 1 ). Second, a significant heat loss was associated with heating the nitrogen gas that left the furnace unreacted. This drawback limited the use of scrap in the charge of the Bessemer furnace and similar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
.... A spark arrester caps the shell. Hot-blast cupolas have a top that can be closed to let the combustion products from the top be diverted to a heat exchanger. The metallic charge consists of pig iron, steel scrap, and returns (feeders and gates of castings and scrap produced in the foundry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
.... Metal grade Gray iron foundries producing the higher grades need a higher steel percentage in the charge. It is possible to use a hot-blast cupola, but induction furnaces may be a better choice. Types of charge materials If a high percentage (> 20%) steel scrap is needed to target low carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... there is little contribution to heating the charge. It is important to remember that the AOD vessel contains no external heating sources. The temperature is raised by the exothermic reactions. Should the charge need to be cooled, this is accomplished by adding solid scrap to the charge. It is economically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... is charged with scrap steel, followed by liquid pig iron from the blast furnace. A water-cooled lance is then lowered into the vessel, through which very pure oxygen is blown at high pressure. The oxygen interacts with the molten pig iron to oxidize undesirable elements, including excess carbon, manganese...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
..., molten metal treatment, control of inclusions, ingot grain refinement, and direct chill (DC) or continuous casting. aluminum alloys belt casters continuous casting direct chill ingot casting inclusions melting molten metal processing scrap charging Direct chill (DC) ingots used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Amount typically observed (a) , % Effects (b) Carbon (c) Pig irons, cast scrap, coke, and intentional addition 2.0–3.0 Lower levels of carbon are difficult to anneal, have strong white iron tendency, and have low fluidity. Higher levels are easier to anneal, have better fluidity, but show...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... are not required. Control of charging materials may be required, with special emphasis on high-quality scrap. Basic Refractories “Basic” linings are principally magnesium oxide although some linings contain chromium oxide, calcium oxide, and many other oxides in small, controlled percentages. They resist...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and removal of carbon, silicon, and other impurities by oxides, such as CO in the case of carbon. There are two main processes used for making steel today: the electric arc furnace and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF). While the electric arc furnace mainly uses scrap steel, the BOF requires a charge of molten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... inspection, cleaning 6 Graphite bands, flakes Scrap Section guiding (cannot be avoided completely) Cleaning 7 Mechanical damage Scrap Section guiding, handling … 8 Pick-up Scrap Billet … 9 Transverse cracking Scrap … … 10 Incorrect billet, incorrect charge Scrap … … 11...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... the metal. Hardener chemistry is tightly controlled. Scraps from previous operations are added to many charges by a proper segregation process. Uses of the proper scrap in controlled amounts in a particular charge are important factors that can affect quality. The use of purchased scrap in an aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... returns (sprues, runners, gates, and feeders), and scrap can be charged into the crucibles. T-bars and sows are too large for crucible furnaces. 7.2.1 Comparison of Gas-Fired and Electric Resistance Crucible Furnaces Table 7.1 summarizes the attributes of gas-fired and electric crucible furnaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.9781627082839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
..., such as steel, the cost versus weight saved is often a critical metric. The price fluctuations for primary metal also have consequences for the economics of aluminum scrap. Collectors of scrap metal, including municipalities, reap the benefits when prices are high as companies want to use more scrap...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... accept. Since the charge materials for stainless steel are typically carbon steel and stainless steel scrap, this flexibility allows scrap of all types to be used. The necessary chromium is added as ferrochromium, whose cost is inversely related to its carbon content. The carbon content of the heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... To prevent wash of the lining when charging a furnace with molten metal, a layer of dry, solid scrap should be placed in the bottom first. Metal splashing due to materials being dropped into a molten metal bath. Because of this hazard, very little charging is done by hand or by operators in cranes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... by the individual foundry’s established quality assurance philosophy. Elements of a QA program can vary from the routine testing of purchased materials such as sand or charge scrap to the more involved programs, including a description of control of quality costs, and a description of qualification of non...