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scatter diagrams

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... Chapter 3, “Steel and the Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram,” discusses steel microstructures that occur at high temperatures, where it is generally not possible to observe such structures clearly, even in a hot stage microscope. This chapter discusses only the room-temperature microstructures that are observed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the presence of intermediate phases affects the melting behavior of binary alloys and the transformations that occur under different rates of cooling. It begins by examining the phase diagrams of magnesium-lead and copper-zinc, noting some of the complexities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... kinetic energy in electrical fields and scatter accompanied by light emission of a broad spectrum. The typical CMOS logic sends no PE signal in static mode. Switching inverters emit light, so dynamic measurements in picosecond resolution are used for circuit and delay analysis. Failing FETs and circuit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses some of the methods and measurements used to construct phase diagrams. It explains how cooling curves were widely used to determine phase boundaries, and how equilibrated alloys examined under controlled heating and cooling provide information for constructing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... too many variables to evaluate, too much scatter in test results, and too many specimens that do not fracture in the desired manner because of problems with the test fixtures and/or the specimens themselves. Study of Fig. 18 and the following discussion may help the uninitiated to appreciate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Three primary attenuation processes of electromagnetic radiation, namely photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production, are covered. The chapter then discusses the principles of shadow formation, the process involved in the conversion of radiation into a form suitable for observation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... (~ 10 -6 Torr) or better to minimize scattering of the electron beam and to prevent contamination of the sample by beam-deposited materials. However, in some cases it is desirable to raise the chamber pressure. This can be achieved by “differential pumping” so that the electron source remains at low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., after a period of etching, small steps develop at the grain boundaries, as shown in Fig. 1.3 . For example, at the boundary of a fast-etching grain, one would see a step up to the surrounding grains. The step generally causes light to be scattered away from the eye, and the boundaries appear as dark...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... forms, which are variations of the simplified wave form illustrated in Fig. 13 . Fig. 13 Diagram of surface (Rayleigh) waves propagating at the surface of a metal along a metal-air interface. The wavelength (λ) is the distance corresponding to one complete cycle. Source: Ref 1 Lamb...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... test” (purity acceptance) example shown in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 Flow diagram for statistical quality test for purity acceptance A sample plan should be introduced to acquire the statistical variables needed for testing. Data may be entered in the tabular form as shown in Tables 2 and 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the surface, are used to locate specific areas for more detailed study. Backscattered electron images, involving higher-energy electrons that have undergone scattering processes before escaping from the sample, reveal atomic number contrast and crystallographic information. Auger maps, obtained by measuring...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., namely secondary electrons (SEs), back-scattered electrons (BSEs), x-rays, and light photons, as shown by the schematic given in Fig. 5.11 . The phenomenon is known as scattering. From an SEM image point of view, SEs and BSEs are of more importance. These signals are analyzed with the help of a set...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... fail if tested to a sufficient number of cycles. Therefore, the fatigue strength of aluminum is usually reported as the stress level it can survive at a very large total number of cycles, usually 5 × 10 8 cycles. It should be noted that there is a considerable amount of scatter in fatigue test results...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
..., the eutectoid carbon content is about 0.78%. In such circumstances, the amount of carbide formed depends on how much the carbon content exceeds the eutectoid value of the alloy. For example, consider an iron-carbon alloy with a carbon content of C 1 in relation to the equilibrium diagram shown in Fig. 3.2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., surface layers of face-centered cubic γ′ Fe 4 N or close-packed hexagonal ε Fe 2 N 1− x may form, as shown in the iron-nitrogen phase diagram (Fig. 21.40) in Chapter 21, “Surface Hardening” ( Ref 22.13 ). In view of the diffusion-controlled increase in nitrogen content of a steel surface produced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... from producing strong magnetic properties, great strengths, and high melting points, the unfilled d -band is also responsible for the poor electrical conductivity and high electronic specific heat. When an electron is scattered by a lattice irregularity, it jumps into a different quantum state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
.... Schematic diagram of a coal-fired steam power plant ( Ref 4 ). Fig. 1.5. Relationships among steam pressure, temperature, and specific volume in the various components of a large steam power plant ( Ref 4 ). Property requirements and materials of construction for fossil steam plant components...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... confused. Most of the information in the chapter is of a practical nature, covering application-oriented topics such as isothermal transformation (IT) and continuous transformation (CT) diagrams which are used to predict and control the rate of formation of ferrite, pearlite, and bainite. The chapter also...