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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 2.39 Solidification structures on four length scales. Source: Ref. 2.7 More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 12.1 (Part 1) Oxide scales formed below 570 °C. Figures (a) to (c) show the same area. (a) to (d) High-purity iron. (a) Oxidized at 550 °C. Unetched. 500×. (b) Cathodic ion beam (details given in Ref 3 ). 500×. (c) Scanning electron micrograph. Cathodic ion beam (details given More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 1.1 Scales relevant to the structure of materials. On the left, the approximate dimensions of some objects are given as reference More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 5.6 Scales on the stage that indicate the amount of x - and y- motion More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.20 Heavy oxide scales formed on the side of Type 321 recuperator tube that was exposed to the incoming air after 6 months of service with the metal temperatures approximately 620 to 670 °C (1150 to 1240 °F). This tube was from the same batch of tubes that shows surface chromium More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.24 Scanning electron micrograph (backscattered image) showing the oxide scales formed on the outside diameter of Type 321 tube (from supplier B) exposed to air at approximately 620 to 670 °C (1150 to 1240 °F) for 1008 hours. EDX analysis was performed to determine the chemical More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.47 Oxidation data in terms of metal loss, resulting from external oxide scales, and internal attack, resulting from internal oxide and/or void formation, for alumina-former alloy 214 and chromia/silica-former alloy HR160 along with several other nickel-and iron-base alloys, generated More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.58 Oxide scales formed on alloy 214 in a high-velocity gas stream (0.3 Mach velocity) with 30 min cycles at 1090 °C (2000 °F) for 500 h. Area 1: 96.5% Al, 1.5% Cr, 0.1% Fe, 1.9% Ni. Area 2: 75.2% Al, 6.2% Cr, 2.6% Fe, 16.0% Ni. Area 3: 95.8% Al, 1.0% Cr, 0.1% Fe, 3.1% Ni. Area 4: 53.0 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.5 Formation of internal aluminum nitrides beneath external oxide scales and internal oxides in alloy 601 after exposing to a furnace oxidizing atmosphere for approximately 4 to 5 years in a temperature range of 760 to 870 °C (1400 to 1600 °F). (a) Optical micrograph showing the external More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.26 Loose scales on samples of several nickel-base alloys after testing at 900 °C (1650 °F) in Ar-20O 2 -1Cl 2 for 100 h More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.30 Scanning electron micrograph showing oxide scales and internal oxides for alloy 601 exposed at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 400 h in Ar-20O 2 -0.25Cl 2 . The results of the EDX analysis of the corrosion products on the areas, as marked No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, and No. 5, are listed More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 7.46 Corrosion scales formed on MA956 (left picture) and HR160 (right picture) after exposure at 600 °C (1112 °F) for 2000 h in CO-32H 2 -3.8CO 2 -0.2H 2 S. For MA956, the oxide scale (in black) was a mixed Cr-Al-rich oxide scale with the outer layer being chromium-rich oxide scale More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.25 Optical micrograph showing nonprotective Fe-Cr oxide scales formed on the ″430SS″ weld overlay. Courtesy of Welding Services Inc. More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.77 Scanning electron micrograph showing the oxide scales formed on the nearby location of the one shown in Fig. 10.76 on the severely wasted area for Type 304H reheater tube. Courtesy of Welding Services Inc. More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 18 Application limits and relation between the IRHD-N and VLRH hardness scales More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 4 Protective and nonprotective scales formed on alloy 800. (a) Cr 2 O 3 -base protective oxide scale formed in sulfur-free oxidizing gas. (b) Sulfide-oxide scale formed in reducing conditions containing hydrogen sulfide. Courtesy of I.G. Wright, Battelle Columbus Division More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 19 Approximate relations among hardness scales for plastics More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Since the introduction of chip scale packages (CSPs) in the early 90s, they have continuously increased their market share due to their advantages of small form factor, cost effectiveness and PCB optimization. The reduced package size brings challenges in performing failure analysis...
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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 6.28 (a) Dark brown scale on OD surface. (b) Brownish black scale on the ID surface of a tube More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 4 Metal with oxide scale. (a) A protective scale that prevents gas access. (b) Schematic of electrochemical oxidation through a protective oxide scale that serves as electrolyte and electron lead. The case is for mobile cations More