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scale inhibitors

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... often contain small amounts of water that supports microbiological growth. Antifoulants and scale inhibitors prevent the precipitation and accumulation of solids in processing units. Deposition on metal surfaces leads to underdeposit corrosion. Fouling also prevents filming-type inhibitors from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... formation and persistence. Bactericides are chemicals that kill or control microorganisms. Many of the chemicals are surface-active cationic materials and must be used with care relative to compatibility with anionic chemicals, such as scale inhibitors. The most common surface-active bactericides are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... require blast cleaning, while some alkyd and oil-base coating systems can be applied over rust, mill scale, or a poorly cleaned surface. In addition to being cleaned, the surface must be roughened to provide for a mechanical bond of the paint to the substrate. This is usually accomplished by abrasive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... factors governing the deposition and retention of a protective iron carbonate (siderite) scale. On the other hand, there are the factors that determine the rate of corrosion on bare steel. These latter factors govern the importance of maintaining corrosion control. For simple systems, bare steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... aluminum alloys, are useful only because of passive films, which are thin (nanometer-scale) oxide layers that form naturally on the metal surface and greatly reduce the rate of corrosion of the alloys. Such passive films, however, are often susceptible to localized breakdown, resulting in accelerated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... service environments. An example of improved corrosion resistance by modifying the chemical composition is the alloying of steels. Carbon and low-alloy steels are less costly but also less corrosion-resistant. At the higher end of the alloying scale are the more costly and significantly more corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... protected materials. Fig. 15.7 Forms of corrosion Fig. 15.8 Breaks in mill scale (Fe 3 O 4 ) leading to galvanic corrosion of steel Although sometimes considered a form of corrosion, galvanic corrosion is more accurately considered a type of corrosion mechanism. Galvanic action is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... distribution of the sites can be examined as well as the influence of the specific resistivity of the solution. Finally, in the limit of these sites becoming sufficiently small that they are indistinguishable relative to the scale of examination, the analysis of the corrosion phenomena is essentially the same...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... inhibitors may eliminate or reduce selective attack, abrasive or other mechanical descaling methods, again, are preferable to acid pickling for removing scale from welded parts, unless a safe pickling procedure has been found for a given application. Hydrogen embrittlement does not occur in superalloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...-hardened part can be important. Parts that are heated with high austenitizing temperature can have surface defects such as blisters or solidified melts. Another common effect is the formation of scale during austenitizing. Scale formation is a natural product of all steel parts that are heat treated by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... rate. More commonly, one or more oxides form a layer, or layers, on the metal surface. When their thickness is less than approximately 3000Å, surface oxide layers are called films, and when thicker, they are referred to as scales. Thick oxide or scale layers are divided into two categories...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... International, 2002. High-temperature oxidation or gaseous corrosion refers to the reaction of metals with oxygen at high temperatures, usually in the absence of moisture. A surface film or scale forms that acts as the electrolyte in the absence of a liquid electrolyte. The nature of the oxide film usually...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... operating temperature in Kelvin, and p CO 2 is the partial pressure of CO 2 in bar. The corrosion rate obtained by Eq 5 has typically been seen as the maximum possible corrosion rate without accounting for iron carbonate scaling. A nomogram representing Eq 5 is given in Fig. 1 ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... substantially change the mechanism of corrosion and, therefore, break all ties to reality and service performance. Pilot-plant tests are usually more desirable than laboratory tests, but they are also more expensive. Here the tests are made in a small-scale plant that essentially duplicates the intended...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... material composition, heat treatment, surface preparation (mill scale, coatings surface finish, and so on), surface oxides occurring in air, environmental composition (trace contaminants, dissolved gases, and so on), temperature, and flow rate. Exposure time is also important, particularly for materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... by removal of atoms. It can occur by the interaction of a gas, such as oxygen, which converts the surface atoms to oxides that can adhere or be scaled off. Alternately, it can occur electrochemically as a coupled reaction between an anode and at least one cathode. The various forms of corrosion are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Protected end (cathodic, or most noble) The three-layer iron oxide scale formed on steel during rolling varies with the operation performed and the rolling temperature. The dissimilarity of the metal and the scale can cause corrosion to occur, with the steel acting as the anode in this instance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Oxidation, scales Heat-transfer effects Molten deposits Condensation and dewpoint Control Surface cleaning and preparation Coatings Cathodic protection Inhibitors Inspection Planned maintenance Source: Ref 1 Aluminum products sometimes are coated on one or...