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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... with the investigation and analysis of metallurgical failures that occur in service. It describes the steps of an orderly failure analysis from collecting and examining samples to performing mechanical and nondestructive tests, preparing and examining fractographs and micrographs, determining failure mode, writing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... discussed in the chapter are: collection of background information and sampling; preliminary laboratory examination; detailed metallographic and fractographic examinations; chemical analysis of corrosion products and bulk materials; corrosion testing for quality control; mechanical testing for quality...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... collected from the areas near the waterwall between the secondary and tertiary air ports in an operating boiler. The samples collected were analyzed using the gas chromatograph technique. The samples were collected from the area of the carbon steel waterwall that had experienced high corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... and analysis of failure is as follows: Collection of background data and selection of samples Preliminary examination of the failed part (visual examination and record keeping) Nondestructive testing Mechanical testing (including hardness and toughness testing) Selection, identification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... as a result of the interaction of incident electron beam with inner shell electrons of the atoms of various elements are collected by a spectrometer. EDS can be performed using scanning or transmission electron microscopes. In SEM based EDS, when the high energy electron beam is incident on the bulk sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... and lined white paper Color standard, note paper, drawing paper, collection funnel 19 Plastic bags, 100 × 100 mm (4 × 4 in.) Sample collection 20 Swabs Sample collection; always keep one for control sample 21 Alloy reference list Materials, compositions, specs, data 22 Hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of the elements contained within the sample. These x-rays can be collected within the microscope to provide information about the chemical composition of the constituents in the sample. The primary electrons also interact to generate other electrons, called secondary electrons, which can provide topographical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... to confusion and wrong direction of the investigation. Primary failure must be distinguished from numerous secondary failures. Samples from the suspected primary failure region must be collected carefully, and their location in the wreckage and in the original structure must be recorded. Any other samples...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., some of these DOE’s are inherent in the layout. Test floor data collection must comprehend the variety of tester platforms used, data file formats, data sampling plans, and file management concerns. Integration includes both in-house and third party hardware and software aspects. The Test...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... is rastered across the sample surface, it responds to topographic features and/or material properties at each sampling site (pixel); the responses of the probe are then collected and displayed visually. There are many variations of the SPM probe that have been developed for a wide variety of standard...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... of statistical methods is necessary to control the process. Many aluminum extrusion plants that follow TQM or International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 standards maintain statistical quality plans and quality manuals. The quality process starts with a plan for sampling. The collection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... secondary electrons at high pressure. The secondary electrons cause ionization in the gas and the gas ions are then collected and counted to produce the image signal. As the gas pressure is raised in the sample chamber, more of the electrons in the beam will be scattered. Since most of the scattering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Circuits , Singapore , 2012 , pp. 1 - 5 . 10.1109/IPFA.2012.6306302 [8] Yang K. , and Whitaker J. , ( 2002 ). Chapter 10 Electro-optic sampling and field mapping , in Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Application ( CRC Press ). [9] Wenbing Yun , & Mario Pacheco...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... precipitates and fine phase dispersions. Dislocations and their orientations in a crystal can be observed and identified. Like a SEM, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) uses a finely focused electron beam to scan the sample surface and synchronize the signals collected from the sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... instrument, the primary ion beam is used to bombard a sample, causing secondary ions to be sputtered which then are collected and separated according to their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio. Figure 6 shows a cartoon schematic of the SIMS technique. Figure 6 A schematic illustrating some of the important...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... (in this case, a “failure”). The first and probably more critical step in this process involves collecting sufficient information to enable the formulation of the various hypotheses to be tested. The achievement of a satisfactory result when testing a hypothesis in a normal procedure can be considered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... Invasiveness Sample Preparation VLP Tool Components The acquisition of an LVP waveform is straight-forward and requires little time. Correctly interpreting the information contained within the resulting waveform however can be quite the opposite. Even as the data is being collected and displayed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Aperture where: N = index of refraction (between the lens and the sample) θ = the half angle of the acceptance cone of the lens N.A. approaches a limit as the collecting half angle approaches 90º. In air where the refractive index is 1, the maximum N.A. is limited to 1 and in practice...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... as an extension of the preceding chapter on design analysis. Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from a sample population of objects or measurements. Statistics refers to gathering numerical data to present information about a subject...