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reversed bending

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... rubbing during the compression cycle. For example, Fig. 3.25 shows multiple points of crack initiation from cyclic reversed bending. Cracks initiated at several locations on two sides near the three o’clock and nine o’clock positions, where maximum tensile stresses developed during cyclic reversed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... nozzle was also damaged, and based on its microstructure, came very close to melting. Investigators determined that the burner was mounted backwards, facing the compressor rather than the turbine. They also recommended a redesign to prevent the fuel nozzle from being reversed. fuel nozzles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., chlorination, ion exchange, demineralization, reverse osmosis, caustic and chelant treatment, oxygen scavenging, and colloidal, carbonate, phosphate, and sodium aluminate conditioning. boiler tubes carryover corrosion scaling water chemistry internal water treatment external water treatment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... a bit of the data in the literature is for fully reversed bending with no mean stress applied on top of it. Another common stress cycle is the repeated stress cycle in which there is a mean stress (σ m ) applied on top of the maximum and minimum stresses. The maximum and minimum stresses do not...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., bending-unbending at the die shoulder and reverse bending-unbending at the punch corner. The Bauschinger effect is the softening in the material observed when a reverse load is applied after forward loading. As a result, not only there is lowering of yield stress, but also the whole shape of the hardening...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... classified in different ways. One way is to consider them either as dimensional distortion (growth or shrinkage) or as shape distortion (such as bending, twisting, or buckling). They may also be classified as being either temporary or permanent in nature. This chapter discusses the nature, causes, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... processes but at higher cost. Architectural shapes and aerospace forms that call for compound curves, reverse bends, twists, and bends in two or more planes are also produced by stretch forming. Spinning forms sheet metal or tubing into seamless hollow cylinders, cones, hemispheres, or other circular...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... metal forming processes, blanking and piercing, bending, stretch forming, drawing, rubber pad forming, and superplastic forming. hot working cold working bulk deformation rolling forging extrusion sheet metal forming blanking piercing bending stretch forming drawing rubber pad forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Abstract This chapter provides a concise, design-oriented summary of more than 30 sheet forming processes within the categories of bending and flanging, stretch forming, deep drawing, blank preparation, and incremental and hybrid forming. Each summary includes a description and diagram of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Section 3 of a B-pillar was selected for conducting a two-dimensional plane-strain simulation. (a) Initial punch position. (b) Final punch position (punch moves up by 83.3 mm, or 3.28 in.). Source: Ref 3.24 Fig. 3.20 Tool geometry of V-die bending ( a p = punch tip angle, a d = V-die...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This article presents six case studies of failures with steel forgings. The case studies covered are crankshaft underfill; tube bending; spade bit; trim tear; upset forging; and avoidance of flow through, lap, and crack. The case studies illustrate difficulties encountered in either...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
.... Source: Ref 10.3 Fig. 10.4 Common roll forming mill configurations. (a) Outboard, (b) Inboard, (c) Double-head, and (d) Raft types Fig. 10.5 Schematic illustration of longitudinal bending occurring by roll forming Fig. 10.7 Flower diagram of a roll-formed product. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., including brake forming, stretch forming, deep drawing, and spin forming as well as roll forming, drop-hammer forming, tube bulging and bending, and superplastic forming. It also discusses dimpling and joggling and the use of hot sizing to correct springback. forming lubricants titanium alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... surface of induction hardened parts, but subsurface in the core close to the case/core interface. Figure 21.9 , taken from the work of Nissan ( Ref 21.17 ), shows the role that residual stresses play in fatigue performance of an induction-hardened 4145 steel subjected to fully reversed cantilever bending...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This chapter reviews the fundamentals of stress, strain, and deformation and demonstrates some of the tools and techniques used to analyze how materials and structures respond to tension, compression, bending, and shear. It begins with an overview of the behavior of perfectly elastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... bending stresses in this region. This stress led to crack initiation and propagation by fatigue in the trailing edge center piece. Once the center piece cracked fully, the outer skin was subjected to severe overload. The final overload fracture of one outer skin took place by the reverse slant mode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... , which is similar to what a shaft may encounter during service. Since this was the original type of machine used to generate fatigue data, quite a bit of the data in the literature is for fully reversed bending with no mean stress applied on top of it. Another common stress cycle is the repeated stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... out under rotating-bending or plane-reverse-bending conditions, with plane push-pull testing falling in between ( Ref 35 ). Fig. 14 Examples of fretting fatigue test configurations. (a) Cantilever beam reverse bending with single pads. (b) Rotating fully reversing bending with double foot-pad...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... unidirectional bending indicate the bending axes. Also note the radial ratchet marks between origins of the high nominal stress fractures. In the torsional fatigue fractures (bottom row), note that unidirectional fatigue (left) is at an approximate 45° angle to the shaft axis, while reversed torsional fatigue of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
..., developed from a method presented in Ref A4.3 , is a screening technique based on the determination of significant load reversals. The technique utilizes the analogy of a slalom course of a specified width that is represented by the load-time trace of the load spectrum. The number of direction changes...