1-20 of 212 Search Results for

retained austenite transformation

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... austenite to martensite will remain incomplete; austenite will be retained in the final microstructure. Figure 4.1 represents a high-carbon surface where a part of the martensite transformation range (M s to M f ) lies below 20 °C. Therefore, the presence of retained austenite is to be expected and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...% transformation, which happens to be close to room temperature in the case of eutectoid steels. Some 5 to 10 vol% of austenite is usually retained at room temperature in a quenched eutectoid steel (see Fig. 9.26e ). One possibility is that the martensite plates nucleate independently within the grains of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... quenching occurs because of the latent heat released during phase transformation. The intermediate cooling rate obtained with the aqueous polymer quenchant resulted in the formation of approximately 85% martensite with the remaining 15% being retained austenite. These predictions were validated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... present in most transformed microstructures, and even if some is retained as in medium- and high-carbon martensitic microstructures, that retained austenite does not define the grain size of the parent austenite. In view of the absence of austenite itself, frequently the austenite grain size of a steel is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... (TRIP) steels are one of the newest and interesting materials developed by the steel industry. They are characterized by their excellent strength and high ductility. Transformation-induced plasticity refers to a deformation mechanism where soft retained austenite is transformed into hard martensite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... still present austenite at the end of the treatment. This austenite is commonly referred to as retained austenite. Martensite forms at very high velocities (the velocity of the martensitic transformation is close to the velocity of sound in the material; Ref 7 ) and in elongated shapes, either...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... some or all of the remaining retained austenite is said to be conditioned during the first temper. Furthermore, during cooling from the tempering temperature, the conditioned retained austenite will transform to fresh martensite, which, not being tempered, is brittle. (For reasons too complex to go...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... at lower temperatures and the subsequent manipulation of carbide formation during cooling. Moreover, when austenitized steel is rapidly cooled (quenched), it produces a different mechanism of phase transformation. During rapid quenching from austenite to ferrite, there is not enough time for the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... transforms to martensite. Further alloy-element partitioning occurs during tempering as retained austenite transforms and fine alloy carbides precipitate in tempered martensite. Strengthening and wear resistance are provided by all elements of the microstructure: the retained carbides, the tempered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... refrigeration, the chapter explains that it is not uncommon for subzero treatments to be included in the production of carburized parts whether as a standard procedure or optional step. Subzero cooling promotes the transformation of retained austenite to martensite, thereby increasing surface hardness and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... production of hypo- and hypereutectoid steels and the effect of cooling rate on microstructure. It also examines quenched steels and the phase transformations associated with rapid cooling. It describes the development of lath and plate martensite, retained austenite, and bainite and how to identify the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... precipitates first as lath-like platelets within martensite plates (at transformation twins and at the midrib) and at plate interfaces. The platelets later agglomerate to form spheroidal particles that coarsen rapidly at high temperatures. Decomposition of Retained Austenite . Retained austenite decomposes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The microstructure of carbon steel is largely determined by the transformation of austenite to ferrite, cementite, and pearlite. This chapter focuses on the microstructures produced by diffusion-controlled transformations that occur at relatively low cooling rates. It describes the conditions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... phase, α initial , remains when it transforms, as in the reaction α initial → α final + β. The transformation of α initial into α final involves a composition change but retains its original crystalline structure. Since the phase forms from α initial , atoms of α initial must diffuse to the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... carbon content of the martensite, the volume fraction of austenite retained in the structure, and the number, size, and dispersion of the cementite particles present. Transformation of the pearlitic regions at temperatures above the A 1 temperature occurs by the same processes as those described in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in the heat treatment of steel, namely austenitizing, hardening, quenching, and tempering. It begins with an overview of austenitizing of steels by induction heating, followed by a discussion on the processes involved in transformation of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... temperatures and is therefore independent of time. The transformation ceases when the steel falls below the M f temperature. Some remaining austenite may still be present when the transformation stops and is referred to as retained austenite. Refer to Fig. 10.19 to note the locations of the M s and the 50...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... that formed on cooling to room temperature. The balance of the microstructure is austenite. Figures 5.5(b) and (c) show how some of the austenite retained at room temperature is transformed to new plates on successive subzero cooling to −60 °C (−75 °F) and −100 °C (−150 °F), respectively. The new...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Abstract The properties of martensite and the mechanisms that govern its formation are the key to understanding hardness and the hardenability of carbon steel. Martensite is a transformation product of austenite that requires rapid cooling to suppress diffusion-dependent transformation pathways...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...-carbon steels, at intermediate transformation temperature ranges, austenite may transform only to ferrite, resulting in two-phase microstructures of ferrite and retained austenite. The latter microstructures have morphologies quite different from the proeutectoid ferrite morphologies described in...