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retained austenite

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of retained austenite in quenched carburized steels. It explains why retained austenite can be expected at the surface of case-hardened components, how to estimate the amount that will be present, and how to effectively stabilize or otherwise control...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... of the transformation is therefore often arbitrarily defined by either 90% or 95% transformation, which happens to be close to room temperature in the case of eutectoid steels. Some 5 to 10 vol% of austenite is usually retained at room temperature in a quenched eutectoid steel (see Fig. 9.26e ). One possibility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... undissolved carbides just prior to quenching. This reduces the amount of retained austenite that often accompanies excessive heating temperatures. Problems of increased distortion and cracking increase with the retained austenite content, and it is important that undissolved carbides be in the dispersed form...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of lath martensite is directly dependent on austenitic grain size ( Fig. 8.1 ) ( Ref 8.1 ). However, at room temperature austenite is no longer present in most transformed microstructures, and even if some is retained as in medium- and high-carbon martensitic microstructures, that retained austenite does...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the effects that can be observed by light microscopy when a steel in the hardened condition, consisting of martensite and possibly some retained austenite, is heated at subcritical temperatures. It includes micrographs that illustrate the effect of carbide...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... unique to tool steels, including two-phase effects, austenite stabilization, and the conditioning of retained austenite. austenite carbides heat treatment mechanical properties tool steel ONE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS of our species, Homo sapiens , has been the use of tools. Because our...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... spectroscopy. It explains how the tools work and what they reveal. It also covers the topic of image analysis and its application in the measurement of grain size, phase/volume fraction, delta ferrite and retained austenite, inclusion rating, depth of carburization/decarburization, scale thickness, pearlite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... to refrigeration, the chapter explains that it is not uncommon for subzero treatments to be included in the production of carburized parts whether as a standard procedure or optional step. Subzero cooling promotes the transformation of retained austenite to martensite, thereby increasing surface hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the production of hypo- and hypereutectoid steels and the effect of cooling rate on microstructure. It also examines quenched steels and the phase transformations associated with rapid cooling. It describes the development of lath and plate martensite, retained austenite, and bainite and how to identify...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of partitioning, precipitation, segregation, and retained austenite. cold work tool steel die steel heat treatment high-speed tool steel hot work tool steel maraging steel microstructure shock-resistant tool steel water-hardening tool steel TOOL STEELS are the steels used to form and machine...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... result that must be clearly understood when heat treating such alloys as 52100 bearing steel, as is now discussed. Figure 4.18 shows the amount of retained austenite that is obtained in a quenched steel as the %C of the quenched austenite increases. In hypoeutectoid steels (%C less than 0.77...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to quenching and are seldom used in the quenched and tempered condition. While the face-centered cubic (fcc) austenite that forms during austenitization is capable of dissolving as much as 2 wt% C, only a small fraction of carbon can be retained in the lower-temperature body-centered cubic (bcc) ferrite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... (TRIP) steels are one of the newest and interesting materials developed by the steel industry. They are characterized by their excellent strength and high ductility. Transformation-induced plasticity refers to a deformation mechanism where soft retained austenite is transformed into hard martensite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... is the presence of significant amounts of stable retained austenite that transforms to hard martensite with progressive plastic deformation of the steel. This results in a high and sustained work-hardening rate of the material. Because austenite is not an equilibrium phase at room temperature, the challenge...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... chemical composition, some austenite is retained, as schematically illustrated. Fig. 13.4 Transverse cross section of a dual-phase steel containing C = 0.09%, Mn = 1%, and Nb = 0.03%. Ferrite (F) and martensite (M). Ferrite grain size: 5 μm. Etchant: nital. SEM, SE. Courtesy of ArcelorMittal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., excessive retained austenite, large amounts of globular and network carbides, intergranular oxidation, internal oxidation, residual stress, extremely coarse case or core grain structure, untransformed core with free ferrite, quenching and grinding cracks, surface decarburization, excessive heating during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... stress and breakage are encountered. This procedure for quenching is also commonly used in the carburizing process to reduce the amount of retained austenite. It is a good practice to temper parts immediately (within 30 minutes maximum) after hardening, to minimize the possibility of cracking from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... 0.65 12.8 0.4 0.65 From the previous discussion, it should be clear that the austenitization temperature and times are important variables in the heat treat process. In addition, the quench temperature and quench rates are important, because these alloys are prone to formation of retained...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... hardening in high-alloy steels. Observe that high-temperature hardness is only possible through precipitation hardening caused by alloy carbides (secondary hardening). At low temperatures, hardness is less than martensite due to the presence of retained austenite, which is eliminated after high-temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
.... thermomechanical processing microstructure advanced high-strength steels mechanical properties ADVANCED HIGH-STRENGTH STEELS (AHSS) are primarily steels with tensile strengths ≥500 MPa (73 ksi) and complex microstructures of different phases such as ferrite, martensite, bainite, and retained austenite...