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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the designations of carbon and low-alloy steels and their general characteristics in terms of their response to hardening and mechanical properties. The steels covered are low-carbon steels, higher manganese carbon steels, boron-treated carbon steels, H-steels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... alloying elements to plain carbon steels is to improve their tempering response. The effect of alloying elements in general is illustrated in Fig. 10.6 and 10.7 . The upper curve of Fig. 10.6 presents the same data for the hardness of fresh martensite that was presented in Fig. 4.13 . Note that this...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... follows. The process of fracture, in general terms, can be described in terms of the mechanisms of crack initiation and/or crack extension (growth). Different mechanisms may occur for crack initiation and the subsequent process of crack growth. For example, crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The decomposition of austenite, during controlled cooling or quenching, produces a wide variety of microstructures in response to such factors as steel composition, temperature of transformation, and cooling rate. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the isothermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... influence steel hardenability and selection. The discussion covers processes involved in Jominy end-quench test for evaluating hardenability. The effect of carbon on hardenability data and the effect of alloys on hardenability during quenching and on the tempering response (after hardening) are also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to facilitate test generation at the low frequency input to the transmitter and response analysis at the low frequency output of the receiver. However, this approach prevents diagnosis of many potential problems because on-chip coupling between the transmitter and receiver cannot be distinguished...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... surface hardening. This chapter introduces solid-state heat treatment of iron castings, covering general considerations for heat treatment and discussing the processes, advantages, and disadvantages of heat treatment of cast iron. annealing cast iron normalizing stress relieving surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... Abstract This chapter is a collection of tables listing: cast alloy designations of Aluminum Association, along with their general applications; the chemical compositions of the frequently used alloys for gravity permanent molds, low-pressure permanent molds, squeeze castings, and die castings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of major types of steel annealing, including the process of normalization, which is a process that refines or normalizes the microstructure of steel. The first part of the chapter begins with an overview of the three-stage process of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... − e ) R 0 If the emissivity is known and the ambient radiance can be accounted for, the temperature of the sample can be found. Lastly, the spectral response of the system must be considered. In general, the system response will not be constant over the spectral range on interest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract Heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This includes various methods namely, annealing, normalizing, and hardening by quenching and tempering. This chapter focuses on general heat treatment procedures and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Magnetic field imaging (MFI), generally understood as mapping the magnetic field of a region or object of interest using magnetic sensors, has been used for fault isolation (FI) in microelectronic circuit failure analysis for almost two decades. Developments in 3D magnetic field...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... lapping, chemical decapsulation, laser ablation, plasma reactive ion etching (RIE), CNC based milling and polishing, or a combination of these coupled with optical or electrical endpoint means. This article discusses the general characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of each of these techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The term heat treatable alloys is used in reference to alloys that can be hardened by heat treatment, and this chapter briefly describes the major types of heat treatable nonferrous alloys. The discussion provides a general description of annealing cold-worked metals and describes some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... cold forging or hot forging in terms of preforge factors and/or discontinuities generated by the forging process. Supporting topics that are discussed in the case studies include validity checks for buster and blocker design, lubrication and wear, mechanical surface phenomenon, forging process design...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter describes cast steel features that may be identified or attributed to component failure during heat treatment or subsequent processing or service, namely porosity (generated by the presence of gas as well as by shrinkage pores), decarburization, cold joint, and inclusions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... transfer symbols) come together to generate a fault-tree analysis. charting symbols fault-tree analysis IN THE 1950s AND 1960s, the United States developed its nuclear intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) program. Nuclear ICBMs were designed such that when launched, they could not be...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., dimensional stability, and generation of quenching and grinding cracks. They also include insufficient case hardness and improper core hardness, influence of surface carbon content and grain size, internal oxidation, structure of carbides, and inclusion of noncarbide. Details on micropitting, macropitting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the composition, structures, properties, and behaviors of aluminum alloys and explains how they correspond to specific alloying elements. It begins with an overview of the general characteristics of wrought and cast aluminum alloys, the four-digit classification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the general principles of measuring hardness and hardenability of steel. The discussion begins by defining hardness and exploring the history of hardness testing. This is followed by a discussion on the principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of...