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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
...Abstract Abstract Instrumented indentation hardness testing significantly expands on the capabilities of traditional hardness testing. It employs high-resolution instrumentation to continuously control and monitor the loads and displacements of an indenter as it is driven into and withdrawn...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... Leitz, Inc.) Figure 4-8 Relationship between numerical aperture, wavelength, and resolution. Figure 4-9 Nomogram used to determine the lowest useful magnification for a given combination of optical resolution and visual acuitity. (From Van Duijn, Ref. 12, courtesy of Microscope...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... to analyze gold films, carbon nanotubes, zeolite sheets, and monolayer graphene. It also describes emerging techniques, including four-dimensional STEM, thermal diffuse scattering, energy filtering, aberration correction, and atomic resolution imaging. diffraction imaging scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... High N.A.’s offer the best resolution. Figure 11 Point sources just resolved by Rayleigh and Sparrow Criteria. Figure 9 Illumination from a point source spreads at the focus due to diffraction. The spread is least for large N.A. This ultimately limits resolution. On film a well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... is overlaid on optical image. Higher resolution images in the insets are overlaid on SEM images. Figure 15 (Left) Local thinning through laser milling or FIB provides an opportunity to get closer to an area of interest for high-resolution scanning. The SV MR sensor is shown in a cavity that is 500...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of detectors for proper PE applications. The main topics are image resolution, sensitivity, and spectral range of the detectors. The article also discusses the value and application of spectral information in the PE signal. It describes state of the art IC technologies. Finally, the article discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... cut and a reflected light image (b) for registration. Figure 18 Schematic of a NAIL on a sample substrate Figure 19 Example of SDL using a SIL showing better than 200nm spatial resolution using a 1340nm laser source. The green contrast indicates a passing condition. (Image courtesy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of Through Silicon Vias. All three approaches allow for a precise localization of thermally active defects in all three spatial dimensions to guide subsequent high-resolution physical analyses. References References [1] Croes K. et al. , “ Reliability Challenges Related to TSV Integration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Comparison of SEM and Optical Microscopy. Table 1 Comparison of SEM and Optical Microscopy. Technique SEM Optical Microscope Resolution Few nm λ/2 ~ 250 nm Depth of field Large (up to mm) Very shallow (~λ) at high magnification Contrast Material composition, topography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... on Solid-state Devices and Mater. , Tokyo , 1988 , pp. 523 . [5] Haddad W.S. and Trebes J.E. . Developments in Limited Data Image Reconstruction Techniques for Ultrahigh-Resolution X-ray Tomographic Imaging of Microchips . in Developments in X-ray Tomography . 1997 . San Diego, CA...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
....7.001729 [19] Laurlente M. , and Fergason J. L. , “ Liquid Crystals Plot the Hot Spots ”, Electronic Design , Vol. 19 ( 1967 ), pp. 71 - 88 . [20] Kolodner P. , Tyson J. A. , “ Microscopic Fluorescent Imaging of Surface Temperature Profiles with 0.01 ºC Resolution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... (in false color) superimposed on an acoustic image of the bond interface of a structured glass wafer. The effect on the enhancement of the lateral resolution obtained by split-spectral analysis can be seen in the clearly visible gaps between the squares in the analyzed area. Figure 52 Area...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... spectrometry (SIMS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). Each of these capabilities is given for “ideal” conditions, and optimum sensitivity and lateral resolution may not be achievable at the same time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... imaging of integrated circuits at sub-100 nm resolution , Conference Proceeding from International 29th Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 29 227 – 233 , 2002 . [16] Bonse U. , (Editor.), “ Developments in X-Ray Tomography IV ” SPIE , Wellingham , ( 2004 ). [17] [ Brockdorf...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... , and Ram R. J. , “ Nanoscale Thermoreflectance With 10mK Temperature Resolution Using Stochastic Resonance ,” in Proceedings of the 21st IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium , San Jose , 2004 . [8] Tessier G. , Hole S. , and Fournier D. , “ Quantitative thermal imaging by synchronous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Laser wavelengths, respective absorption depth in Si, required SIL material for LVP, and expected resolution <xref rid="t91110244-ref45" ref-type="bibr">[45]</xref> Table 1 Laser wavelengths, respective absorption depth in Si, required SIL material for LVP, and expected resolution [45...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... corresponds to the (111) interplanar spacing of silicon, which serves as internal calibration. Figure 17 High-resolution phase contrast image of (a) normal copper-tantalum interface and (b) abnormal copper-tantalum interface separated by an amorphous layer that can lead to a resistive connection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...A comparison of mass spectrometers. Table 2 A comparison of mass spectrometers. Quadrupole ToF Magnetic Sector Ion detection Serial Continuous Parallel detection Mass separation Modulating electric field Flight time Magnetic deflection Mass resolution 500 - 1000...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... range DC to 70 GHz DC to greater than 110 GHz Higher-frequency content allows for faster rise times compared to conventional TDR. Rise time at open probe ~9 picoseconds ~6 picoseconds Faster rise time produces improved resolution Time-based jitter &lt;500 femtoseconds &lt; 30 femtoseconds...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Electrons Electrons Ions Average sampling depth 5 nm 5 nm 2 nm Detection limits 10 –3 10 –4 10 –6 Spatial resolution 10 nm 5–10 μm 150 nm Information Mostly elemental, SEM photos Elemental, chemical Elemental, molecular Strengths Ultimate small area analysis, imaging Ease...