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residual stress

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... section provides information on the residual stresses and distortion that remain after welding. The focus then shifts to distortion control of weldments. Inclusions and cracking are discussed in detail. The chapter also discusses the causes for reduced fatigue strength of a component by a weld: stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the fundamental material- and process-related parameters of quenching on residual stress, distortion control, and cracking. It begins with a description of phase transformations during heating and quenching of steel. This is followed by a section on...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., flow, voids, and residual stress. It then discusses each variable in detail, explaining how it affects the cure process, how it is measured, and how it can be expressed mathematically in the form of a simple model. The discussions throughout the chapter are supported by numerous images, diagrams, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... affect impact and tensile strength, shrinkage, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. It examines the relationship between tensile modulus and temperature, provides thermal property data for selected plastics, and discusses the effect of chemical exposure, operating temperature, and residual stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... information on the causes and characteristics of residual stresses, distortion, and quench cracking of steel. austenite transformation continuous cooling transformation diagram cooling rate distortion isothermal transformation diagram quench cracking quenchants quenching steel THE...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter provides information on various contributors to failure of carburized and carbonitrided components, with the primary focus on carburized components. The most common contributors covered include component design, selection of proper hardenability, increased residual stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... surface hardening, residual stresses after induction surface hardening and finish grinding, and input and output control of steel for induction surface hardening of gears. induction hardening quenching magnetic flux concentrators time-temperature dependence gears steel residual stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... bars are also shown. Notice that in the transverse bar, the elongated inclusions will run parallel to the base of the V-notch, while in the longitudinal bar, they will run at right angles to the base of the V-notch. Brittle failure occurs by cracks being opened up by the triaxial stresses generated at...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses some of the challenges associated with the analysis of composite structures. It begins with a review of lamina fundamentals and the stress-strain relationships in a single ply under various types of loads. It demonstrates the use of classical lamination theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... precise definitions. Residual stresses can be created in a number of ways, ranging from ingot processing in the mill to the manufacture of the finished product. Sources include rolling, casting, forging, bending, quenching, grinding, and welding. In the stress-relief process, steel is heated to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... relieving: using special heating-cooling cycles to relieve residual stresses caused by temperature differences in various parts of the casting Annealing: slow cooling of the austenite matrix to achieve maximum softness and machinability Normalizing: cooling the casting in air to obtain higher...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... higher carbon levels. Austenitic stainless steel weldments often contain residual stresses, which can cause distortion or lead to stress corrosion cracking in service. They are commonly stress relieved at temperatures slightly below the annealing temperature, so that residual stresses may be relieved...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... rapidly up to the austenitizing temperature. Gray iron castings may contain high-magnitude residual stresses because cooling (and therefore contraction) proceeds at different rates throughout various sections of a casting. The resultant residual stresses cause distortion. In extreme cases, they even...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... Fatigue fractures are promoted by stress concentrators such as notches, sharp fillets, corners, holes, threads, splines, keyways, dents, gouges, laps, folds, flakes, and delaminations in plates, sheets, and forgings. Tensile residual stresses arise from punched holes, heat treatment, welding, and so on...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... characteristics of the fiber-matrix interface, and the residual stress present in the composite due to thermal expansion mismatch between fibers and matrix. High-strength fibers are important because once a matrix crack is initiated and extended, load is transferred from the matrix to the fibers in the wake of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... residual stresses and a low susceptibility to weld cracking. Maraging steels can be hot worked by conventional steel mill techniques, even though allowances must be made for several unique characteristics. Steels with high titanium contents have greater hot strength than conventional steels and require...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., and precipitation-hardening. In addition, information on special considerations for stainless steel castings is also provided. The heat treatment processes explained in the chapter are preheating, annealing, stress relieving, hardening, tempering, austenite conditioning, heat aging, and nitride...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... treat requirements have been applied. Stress relieving of superalloys frequently entails a compromise: the desirability of maximum relief of residual stress must be weighed against possible effects deleterious to high-temperature properties and corrosion resistance. Wrought alloys may be age...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... applications. Unlike α-β and β-alloys, α-alloys cannot be significantly strengthened by heat treatment. Generally, α alloys are annealed or recrystallized to remove residual stresses induced by cold working. Alpha alloys have good weldability because they are insensitive to heat treatment. They generally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... explains how the delta phase, which is used to control grain size in IN-718, improves strength and prevents stress-rupture embrittlement. It describes heat treatments for different product forms, discusses the effect of tramp elements on grain-boundary ductility, and explains how section size and test...