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refractories

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract The refractory metals include niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. These metals are considered refractory because of their high melting points, high-temperature mechanical stability, and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the role of alloying in the production and use of common refractory metals, including molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium. It provides an overview of each metal and its alloys, describing the compositions, properties, and processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...-resistance alloys, superalloys, refractory metals, low-melting-point metals, reactive metals, precious metals, rare earth metals, and metalloids or semimetals. It also provides a brief summary on special-purpose materials, including uranium, vanadium, magnetic alloys, and thermocouple materials. light...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix provides a list of etch compositions and procedures that reveal the macrostructure of aluminum, beryllium, bismuth, antimony, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, nickel, tin, titanium, zinc, and their respective alloys as well as iron, steel, noble metals, refractory metals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the typical compositional ranges of superalloys, the role of major base metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel), and the effects of common alloying additions. It describes how chromium, aluminum, and titanium as well as refractory elements, grain-boundary elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... silver-base materials with refractory constituents such as cadmium oxide, zinc oxide, tin oxide, graphite, tungsten, tungsten carbide, or molybdenum The composite silver-bases are often made using P/M processes, which allow the combination of constituents that ordinarily cannot be alloyed. However...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... , Cambridge University Press , 2010 13.3 German R.M. , Powder Metallurgy Science , Metal Powder Industries Federation , Princeton, NJ , 1984 13.4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit , accessed 2007 Metals usually are cast into molds of sand, another refractory material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Intermetallic Compounds , J. Less-Common Met. , Vol 89 , p 197 – 200 10.1016/0022-5088(83)90266-7 Nieh T.G. , and Wadsworth J. , 1990 . Hot Indentation Tests of Refractory Metal Beryllides , Scr. Metall. Mater. , Vol 24 ( No. 8 ), p 1489 – 1494 10.1016/0956-716X(90)90419-H...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... into several bottom-opening containers. Each container may, in its turn, be located over the arc furnace, the bottom opened, and the contents dropped into the furnace. The impact of large scrap pieces on the refractory bottom of the arc furnace may severely damage that refractory and reduce furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... corrosion is expected, examination of refractory levels is critical for two reasons. One is the self-sustaining hot corrosion caused by vanadium, molybdenum, and tungsten, and the other consideration is that high chromium and high levels of the refractory elements molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... the alloy, such as a refractory aggregate (e.g., silica sand) or a high-temperature alloy. There are a wide variety of mold making methods used in casting, depending on the alloy to be poured, the number of castings to be made, and the dimensional and property requirements. The sand casting process is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... over a decade ago ( Ref 3 ). In billet casting, molten metal flows through a transfer and distribution system. Refractory liners, belonging to different components of that system, must satisfy diverse criteria such as reactivity, maintainability, and disposability. New materials (high-temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... rates ( Ref 7 , 16 , 22 – 25 ). For mass-burning units, the waterwalls are typically protected by alloy 625 weld overlay above the refractory lining at the lower, high-radiant section of the boiler ( Ref 9 ). The waterwalls in an RDF boiler are generally fully protected with alloy 625 weld overlay...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... present only in minor amounts in most nickel-base alloys as a residual element from deoxidation practices or as an intentional addition to promote high-temperature oxidation resistance. In alloys containing significant amounts of iron, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten, or other refractory elements, the level...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... ionically. Most have high melting points and are very hard and brittle. Their tensile strengths are limited by brittle fracture but their compressive strengths are high. Because they retain high hardnesses at elevated temperatures, many are used for refractories (materials having a high heat resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
.... , Ed., Handbook of Atomization and Sprays , Springer , 2011 6.4 “ Ceramic-Free Metal Powder Production for Reactive and Refractory Metals ,” ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH, http://web.ald-vt.de/cms/fileadmin/pdf/prospekte/Eiga_engl_2011.pdf (accessed April 22 , 2015 ) 6.5 “ Metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... of composition and processing make the cost of superalloys typically in the range of 30 to 200 times that of plain stainless steel ( Ref 2 ). Although there are a number of other material groups that can be used at high temperatures, such as ceramics and refractory metal alloys, superalloys are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... stainless steel as opposed to carbon steel is that the chromium in stainless steel, which is what makes it stainless, must be protected from oxidation, so that: It stays in solution as a corrosion-resisting element. It does not form refractory oxides that would diminish weld soundness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... mold process (SPM). Tooling costs are the lowest among all the processes using metal molds or metal dies. Tooling life is high because of the protective refractory coatings, which prevent metal–mold reactions and require no pressure to fill or feed the cavity. Manufacturing cells can be run...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... , which is essentially a tall, hollow, cylindrical structure with a steel outer shell lined on the inside with refractory brick. The raw materials for a blast furnace charge are iron ore, coking coal, and fluxes, mainly limestone. Coke is a spongelike carbon mass that is produced from coal by heating coal...