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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the process steps in the production of smelter grade aluminum, the environmental issues with aluminum production, and the importance of recycling. It also provides a discussion on the refining, or Bayer, process and the smelting, or Hall-Héroult, process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... melting refining rustless process stainless steel Wild process THE TWO PRINCIPAL alloying elements in stainless steel are chromium in straight chromium steels and chromium and nickel in austenitic steels. Chromium is the difficult material to deal with, because it “gobbles up,” as one writer put...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... as an unavoidable part of petroleum refining and petrochemical operations. Partially due to this historical view of corrosion, one of the primary causes of operational problems in refining and petrochemical operations is corrosion. Corrosion problems increase operating and maintenance costs substantially. Time...
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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 2.3 Bayer refining process. (a) Crushing of bauxite ore as it enters the refinery. (b) Schematic of Bayer refining process used to produce alumina More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 2.7 Evolution of liquid metal chemical composition during refining in a converter. More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 25.1 Processing steps in cooper refining More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 25.2 Electrolytic refining of copper. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 4.21 Cast structure of a round billet (200 mm Ø) after grain-refining treatment More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 27.4 Grain refinement with zirconium. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 8.23 Grain growth in zone-refined iron during isothermal anneals. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 8.12 (Part 1) Austenitic grain refinement in a coarse-grained 0.5% C hypoeutectoid steel. Austenitic grain size initially as shown in Fig. 8.8 (Part 2) (e) . 0.50C-0.06Si-0.07Mn (wt%). (a) Austenitized at 950 °C for 1 h, cooled at 300 °C/h, one cycle. 180 HV. Picral. 100×. (b More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 8.12 (Part 2) Austenitic grain refinement in a coarse-grained 0.5% C hypoeutectoid steel. Austenitic grain size initially as shown in Fig. 8.8 (Part 2) (e) . 0.50C-0.06Si-0.07Mn (wt%). (a) Austenitized at 950 °C for 1 h, cooled at 300 °C/h, one cycle. 180 HV. Picral. 100×. (b More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 11.26 (Part 2) (e) Weld metal, grain-refined pass. 1% nital. 100×. (f) Weld metal, grain-refined pass. Picral. 1000×. (a) and (h) Weld metal: 0.11C-0.14Si-1.01 Mn (wt%). Butt weld made in seven passes in 14 mm plate. (g) Weld metal, as-deposited pass. 1% nital. 100×. (h) Weld More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 5.14 Examples of ladle treatments used to refine molten steels. (a) Bottom stirring. (b) Powder injection. (c) Vacuum oxygen decarburization process. (d) Vacuum arc degassing More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 8 Illustration of how a refinement in grain size improves resistance to hydrogen failure as measured by the time to failure of two strengths of AISI 4340 steels. Source: Ref 20 More
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Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 22 Comparison of the effectiveness of various master alloy grain refiners in aluminum alloy 356 More
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Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 23 Effectiveness of titanium-boron grain refiners in aluminum alloys 356 and 319 More
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Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 24 As-cast Al-7Si ingots showing the effects of grain refinement. (a) No grain refiner. (b) Grain-refined. Both etched using Poulton’s etch; both 2x More
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Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 29 Effect of phosphorus refinement on the microstructure of Al-22Si-1Ni-1Cu alloy. (a) Unrefined. (b) Phosphorus-refined. (c) Refined and fluxed. All 100x More
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Published: 01 December 2016
Fig. 1.13 Effectiveness of the refinement (i.e., achievement of grains of desired size) as affected by holding time in liquid alloy. 1, Refiner of long incubation time; 2, Refiner of short incubation time and fast-effect atrophy, 3, Refiner of short incubation time and long activity duration More