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refining

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This article discusses the steps in the primary processing of stainless steels: melting, refining, remelting, casting, and hot rolling. It provides information of the major categories of defects in hot rolled stainless steels, namely hot mill defects, inclusion-related defects, and hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... unavoidable part of petroleum refining and petrochemical operations. Partially due to this historical view of corrosion, one of the primary causes of operational problems in refining and petrochemical operations is corrosion. Corrosion problems increase operating and maintenance costs substantially. Time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... advancements that led from open hearth steelmaking to basic oxygen processes and ultimately the electric arc furnace (EAF). It describes the versatility, efficiency, and scalability of the EAF process and its impact on recycling and sustainability. It explains how EAF refining and deoxidation practices have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...; dendrite arm spacing; grain size and shape; and eutectic modification and primary phase refinement. This chapter discusses the effects of these microstructural features on properties and methods for controlling them. The chapter concludes with a detailed examination of the refinement of hypereutectic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...; dendrite arm spacing; grain size and shape; and eutectic modification and primary phase refinement. This chapter discusses the effects of these microstructural features on properties and methods for controlling them. The chapter concludes with a detailed examination of the refinement of hypereutectic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., gravity, micro, and inverse. The chapter also provides information on grain refinement and secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity and shrinkage in castings. It concludes with a brief overview of six of the most important casting processes in industries: sand casting, plaster mold casting, evaporative...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... refine stainless steel. The chapter also provides information on the classification and composition of stainless steel castings. It concludes with a brief description of the Schaeffler constitution diagram which is useful in predicting the type of stainless steel as a function of its alloy content...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...- and fine-grained steels. The chapter also discusses grain-refinement processes and some of the effects of overheating, including sulfide spheroidization, grain-boundary sulfide precipitation, and grain-boundary liquation. austenitization carbon steel grain boundary grain growth grain size...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter provides a basis for understanding the influence of stainless steel alloy composition and metallurgy on the welding process, which involves complex dynamics associated with melting, refining, and thermal processing. It begins with an overview of the welding characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... objectives of forging may include grain refinement, control of second-phase morphology, controlled grain flow, and the achievement of specific microstructures and properties. The chapter explains how these objectives can be met by managing work energy via temperature and deformation control. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... system by which they are defined, and the applications for which they are suited. It then explains how primary alloying elements, second-phase constituents, and impurities affect yield strength, phase formation, and grain size and how they induce structural changes that help refine certain alloys. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... Abstract Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a process refinement available to address internal porosity in castings. The HIP process may be used, in particular, for applications requiring very high quality and performance. This chapter discusses the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of HIP...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract This chapter reviews weld corrosion in three key application areas: petroleum refining and petrochemical operations, boiling water reactor piping systems, and components used in pulp and paper plants. The discussion of each area addresses general design and service characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... Abstract Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a process refinement available to address internal porosity in castings. The HIP process may be used, in particular, for applications requiring very high quality and performance. This chapter discusses the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of HIP...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... petroleum refining, where hydrogen attack was observed. It documents the extent of the damage in each case and identifies the source of the hydrogen. coal-fired boilers hydrogen attack References 1. Daniel P. , Corrosion of Steam- and Water-Side of Boilers , Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract The discovery and use of materials have shaped civilization since ancient times. This chapter traces the history of the use of metals from hammered copper estimated to be 11,000 years old to the development of electrolytically refined aluminum in 1884. The discussion covers the advent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... information on residual elements, microalloying, grain refinement, mechanical properties, and grain size of these steels. In addition, the effects of free-machining additives are also discussed. carbon steel composition grain size hardenability low-alloy steel PLAIN CARBON STEELS are by far the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of major types of steel annealing, including the process of normalization, which is a process that refines or normalizes the microstructure of steel. The first part of the chapter begins with an overview of the three-stage process of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the equipment and processes used to convert titanium billet and bar into useful shapes or more refined product forms. These secondary working operations include open-die, closed-die, hot-die and isothermal forging as well as ring rolling and extruding. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., which may be remelted several times to achieve the necessary properties. It also discusses the cause of defects and ingot imperfections and the benefits of billet reduction and grain-refinement processes. billets ingots mill products titanium alloys titanium sponge vacuum arc remelting...