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refinery furnaces

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... life. The chapter explains how and why freckles form as well as how they can be prevented. It describes the criteria for selecting the proper melting method for specific alloys based on melt segregation and chemistry requirements. It compares standard processes, including electric arc furnace/argon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... revolution in the last half of the 19th century. A process for making steel directly from blast-furnace cast iron was being developed at two different locations. One was at a small iron mill in Kentucky owned by two brothers by the names of William and John Kelly. It was typical for families to own and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... brazing process heating methods Method Characteristics Capital cost Running cost Basic output Flux required Versatility Operator skill required Torch (flame) L/M M/H L Yes H Yes Electrical resistance M M M/H Yes L No Induction M/H M M/H Y/N M No Furnace...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... (2100 °F), WQ 770 112 365 53 50 185 190 140 V-notch CN-7M 1120 °C (2050 °F), WQ 476 69 214 31 48 … 130 94.9 70 Keyhole notch (a) AC, air cool; FC, furnace cool; OQ, oil quench; WQ, water quench; T, temper; A, age. Source: Ref 1 The heat-resisting “H...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... cracking or warpage and to control thermal stresses in the range of 250–600 °C (480–1110 °F). The carbon equivalent controls the propensity for steel to crack. The holding time is dependent on geometrical factors related to the furnace (emissivities, temperature, and atmosphere composition) and load...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... They are extremely formable and weldable, and they can be successfully used from cryogenic temperatures to the red-hot temperatures of furnaces and jet engines. They contain between about 16 and 25% chromium, and they can also contain nitrogen in solution, both of which contribute to their high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2