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reference electrodes

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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 27 Example 3. Placement of reference electrodes More
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 9 Copper-saturated copper sulfate reference electrode More
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 8 A copper/copper sulfate reference electrode More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 3 Schematic of an anodic protection system. One or more cathodes, a reference electrode, a potential sensing and controlling circuit, and a dc power supply are required for each anodic protection system. The vessel wall is made the anode of the circuit by current forced between More
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental apparatus used for anodic polarization studies. Current flow between the working electrode and the auxiliary electrode forces a shift in potential between the working electrode and the reference electrode. V, voltmeter. Source: Ref 23 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the major corrosion test categories is provided. More detailed information can be found in several excellent texts (including the selected references at the conclusion of this chapter) and in standards issued by ASTM, NACE International, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... current density electrochemical corrosion electrometer reference electrode Electrochemical corrosion studies to determine both corrosion rates and behaviors frequently employ a potentiostatic circuit, which includes a polarization cell, as schematically shown in Fig. 6.1 . The working electrode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the corrosion of metals in chemical environments that exhibit very interesting behavior when subjected to anodic polarization. This behavior can be studied with an experimental setup, which is shown in block-diagram fashion in Fig. 1 . When the potential of the working electrode relative to the reference...
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Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 6.6 Schematic arrangements for measurements of electrode potentials using an electrometer. (a) Circuit completed through a salt bridge between the reference electrode and the specimen electrolyte. (b) Circuit completed through the specimen electrolyte More
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Published: 01 December 2015
of the weldments are shown where they were measured. Electrochemical measurements performed in 53 g/L NaCl plus 3 g/L H 2 O 2 versus a 0.1 N calomel reference electrode and recalculated to a saturated calomel electrode. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 August 1999
of the weldments are shown where they were measured. Electrochemical measurements performed in 53 g/L NaCl plus 3 g/L H 2 O 2 versus a 0.1 N calomel reference electrode and recalculated to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) More
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Published: 01 December 2006
of the weldments are shown where they were measured. Electrochemical measurements performed in 53 g/L NaCl plus 3 g/L H 2 O 2 versus a 0.1 N calomel reference electrode and recalculated to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... widely used as a reference electrode of known potential in electrometric measurement of acidity and alka- linity, corrosion studies, voltammetry, and measurement of the po- tentials of other electrodes. See also electrode potential, reference electrode, and saturated calomel electrode. CASS test. See...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 4.20 Galvanic series of various metals in flowing seawater at 2.4 to 4.0 m/s at 5 to 30 °C (volts vs. saturated calomel reference electrode). Note: Dark boxes indicate active behavior of active-passive alloys. Source: Ref 12 and 13 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... corrosion rate current density electrode half-cell reaction polarization If two or more electrochemical half-cell reactions can occur simultaneously at a metal surface, the metal acts as a mixed electrode and exhibits a potential relative to a reference electrode that is a function...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... with respect to the copper-copper sulfate reference electrode). Other criteria applied to the protection of steel include the following: Maintain a minimum negative shift of 300 mV (0.3 V) from the freely corroding potential Provide a minimum 100 mV shift on the polarization decay when cathodic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... potential differences can be measured. ( E r x n = E O 2 /OH − − E Fe 2+ /Fe can be measured because it is a difference.) Therefore, half-cell potentials are measured with respect to a reference electrode . Reference electrodes are constructed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... reproducible interface potential difference and, therefore, function as a standard reference electrode. More specifically, these combinations are referred to as standard reference electrodes or half cells because they must be used in conjunction with the metal under investigation to produce a complete...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... Historically, Faraday observed that single-electrode half-cell potentials shifted from their equilibrium values when current passed through electrochemical cells. This deviation is referred to as overpotential or overvoltage . It is generally designated as η and is defined by the relationship: (Eq 3.1...