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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... , American Society for Metals , 1977 Fig. A10.1 Carbon steels, 1019. Source: Ref 1 Fig. A10.2 Carbon steels, 1030. Source: Ref 1 Fig. A10.3 Carbon steels, 1050. Source: Ref 1 Fig. A10.4 Carbon steels, 1060. Source: Ref 1 Fig. A10.5 Carbon steels, 1080. Source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...: Ref 1 Fig. A5.2 Tempering curve for 1144 steel. Tempered 1 h at heat; as quenched, 60 HRC at 120 °C (250 °F). Source: Ref 1 Fig. A5.3 Tempering curve for 4140 steel. Tempered 1 h at heat; as quenched, 60 HRC at 120 °C (250 °F). Source: Ref 1 Fig. A5.4 Tempering curve...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... Normalize (for forged or rolled specimens only), 870 °C (1600 °F). Austenitize, 845 °C (1550 °F). Source: Ref 1 Fig. A6.2 Heat-treating temperatures recommended by SAE. Normalize (for forged or rolled specimens only), 900 °C (1650 °F). Austenitize, 870 °C (1600 °F). Source: Ref 1 Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... aluminides are compiled in this appendix. Included are the Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo and Ti-24Al-11Nb aluminides developed for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program. Data on Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo and Ti-24Al-11Nb beta forgings (pancake) are taken from Ref A9.1 . The alloy compositions are on the basis of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Kinetics of Stress Corrosion Cracking of Magnesium Alloy MA2-1 , Protect. Met. , Vol 20 ( No. 3 ), 1984 , p 300 – 306 The earliest reported work on the SCC of magnesium alloys was conducted in Germany during the 1930s ( Ref 9.1 – 9.3 ). However, its importance was not widely recognized until...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... corrosion can be detected (except possibly for SCC itself). As described elsewhere in this book, stress-corrosion cracking is defined as environmentally induced subcritical crack growth under the influence of static or dynamic tensile stress ( Ref 2.1 ). Three factors must be present, simultaneously...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...) for use in cooking wood chips to manufacture pulp again. This chemical recovery process in the kraft pulping is described in detail in Ref 1 and 2 . Because of its function of recovering cooking chemicals, the boiler is often referred to as a “chemical recovery boiler” or simply “recovery boiler...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
...–0.25 0.03 0.1 Source: Ref 1 Table 3.3 Chemical composition (bal Al) Designation/grade Component, wt% Addition, wt% AlSi7Mg Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Pb Sn Ti Each Total 356.1 6.5–7.5 0.5 0.25 0.35 0.20–0.45 … … 0.35 … … 0.25 0.05 0.15 356.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... is immune to SCC ( Ref 11.1 ). It should be noted that the absence of SCC does not assure that the material is immune. The high SCC resistance of zirconium can probably be attributed to its high repassivation rate. Any break in the surface film quickly heals, provided that there is sufficient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... The chromium content of some steels now approaches 30%, and many other alloying elements are added to provide specific properties or ease of fabrication ( Ref 4.1 ). Figure 4.1 provides a useful summary of some of the compositional and property linkages in the stainless steel family. The Unified...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...-2Cr-27S); 4, Cr depleted zone (72Ni-28Fe); 5, Cr-rich sulfide (internal phase) (40Cr-10 Fe-50S). Materials problems related to sulfidation attack have been encountered in various industries. Some of these problems have been reported in calcining of mineral and chemical feedstock ( Ref 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... cooled, aged 16 h at 720 °C (1325 °F), air cooled. All furnace heating was done under a protective atmosphere of argon. Source: Ref 1 , 2 Fig. D.2 Structure: chainlike precipitate of M2(Cb,Ti). Laves phase in the gamma matrix. Optical microscope, original magnification 250x. Condition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
..., Osmond, and Martens were acknowledged by the Iron and Steel Institute in 1902 ( Ref 1 ): More recently, the work of Sorby, Osmond, Martens, and many others who contributed to development of the science has been thoroughly documented in A History of Metallography by Cyril Stanley Smith ( Ref 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... elements in superalloys is extremely broad, covering most of the periodic table, as shown in Fig. 5.1 . Fig. 5.1 Alloying elements in nickel-base superalloys. Beneficial minor elements are indicated by cross-hatching, while detrimental tramp elements are marked with horizontal lines. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... injecting a mixture of steam and air into the furnace tube. Thus, during the decoking operation, the return bends of the pyrolysis furnace tubes can suffer erosion or erosion-corrosion due to the coke particle-laden gas stream ( Ref 1 , 2 ), with average tube skin temperatures varying from 800 to 1120 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... for lighter oils to 3.5% for some residual oils ( Ref 1 ). Two other corrosive constituents in fuel oils are vanadium and sodium. Vanadium exists in certain crude oils as an oil-soluble porphyrin complex ( Ref 2 ). Fuel oils from some crudes contain low levels of vanadium, while certain Middle Eastern...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... systems ( Ref 1 – 6 ). The seasonal cracking of brass is perhaps the best recognized ( Ref 7 ). Perhaps the first detailed investigation in the scientific literature on alloy corrosion was reported by Calvert and Johnson in 1866 ( Ref 8 ) on copper-zinc alloys. Beyond its direct relevance to stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... compounds of chemical composition characterized by constant relations among concentration of components belong to two groups ( Ref 1 – 3 ). Stoichiometric compounds comply with the Proust-Dalton rule; therefore, crystals of defined crystallographic lattice and chemical composition have the same chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... turbines ( Ref 1 ). Sodium chloride comes from seawater (see Table 9.1 ) ( Ref 2 ). Seawater is also a source of sulfur. For aircraft engines, Tschinkel ( Ref 1 ) suggested that runway dust may be a source of salts. Table 9.1 Composition of seawater Element Composition, ppm Chlorine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... tolerances and production rate ( Ref 9.1 ). These are affected by both machine (press) variables and process variables, as summarized in Fig. 9.1 . The behavior and characteristics of the sheet forming press affect all of the following: Stiffness ( C ) and accuracy of the press (see the section “9.2...