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real-time radiography

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... advantages for improved contrast on low atomic number materials, discrimination between isotopes, or inspection of radioactive specimens. electromagnetic radiation gamma ray radiography neutron radiography radiation gaging real-time inspection X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY is a nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of normal light bulbs, then the density is much too low. As an alternative to film radiography, where it can take 20 min to develop a radiograph that can be viewed, radioscopy offers images in real time. The images are created on x-ray-sensitive screens that can be intensified and scanned with a camera...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... as single light spots or as clusters of small light spots. The spots are usually irregular in shape, but sometimes a rectangular light spot will appear. Real-Time Radiography Real-time radiography, which involves the display of radiographic images on television monitors through the use of an image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... acquisition data reporting data trending data reviewing data auditing HUGE AMOUNTS OF TIME AND MONEY are invested in designing, constructing, commissioning, and operating major petroleum and petrochemical installations. To safeguard this investment and to ensure adequate prevention of adverse effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... a radiographic process that produces a permanent image on film (conventional radiography) or paper (paper radiography or xeroradiography), although, in a broad sense, it refers to all forms of radiographic inspection. When inspection involves viewing of a real-time image on a fluorescent screen or image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... that change the attenuation of the transmitted x-rays. Source: Ref 4 Historically, flaw detection by x-ray radiography has been an expensive and cumbersome process suited only to safety critical and high value added parts. The process has been considerably improved by the development of real-time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter examines methods of internal corrosion prediction for multiphase pipelines and details methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for natural gas pipelines. Further, real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of changing the x-ray energy for changes in total material thickness. These capabilities have significantly improved productivity and have reduced costs, thus enabling higher percentages of castings to be inspected and providing instant feedback after repair procedures. Real-time digital radiography images...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... judgment can result in sizeable cost savings. In any case, the areas to be radiographed with the required severity levels should be indicated on the casting drawing. Ultrasonic testing is frequently used on heavy-section castings where the time involved for radiography would be prohibitive. It works...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... is the cutting of a bar to a specified length. If several separate cuts are made, the resulting pieces will vary in length by some measurable amount. Variability may be difficult to measure when a product is made by precision equipment, but variability is always present. At times it is blatantly obvious...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... on the deeper interface is diminished by losses at the previous interface. Real-time frequency domain and numerical deconvolution analysis techniques may become useful for reducing this effect and overcoming this limitation. The sensitivity of reflection acoustic imaging is superior to the lateral...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... a coupon is an average over a specific period of time. Therefore, field coupon testing cannot detect process upsets as they occur. For real-time monitoring, electrochemical methods, such as the polarization-resistance technique, may be more appropriate (see the following section “ Electrochemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... intervals and that X ¯ and R charts be plotted and tracked to be within the limits specified. These measurements need to be in real time with a quick turnaround for adjustments before pouring. Computers have made plotting and trend analysis easy. The other parameters, such as undercooling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... are approximately $0.5 billion annually. The potential for corrosion in refineries and petrochemical plants may be inherent to some processes, but costly and damaging equipment losses are not. Much work is being done to adapt process control technologies to integrate corrosion monitoring on an online, real-time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... of preparing clean, spheroidized solder powder in precise size distributions and those of the specialist organic chemicals that comprise the binder and flux. Thus, while silver-copper-tin eutectic alloy costs approximately five times that of lead-tin eutectic, when based on metal prices, the premium paid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the transformation artifact. A feature of artificial character, such as of austenite at temperatures below the pearlite a scratch or a piece of dust on a metallo- range but above Ms, the martensite start tem- graphic specimen, that can be erroneously in- perature. terpreted as a real feature. artificial aging (heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., Jablonski, with instructions to run it through a series of tests to determine its properties. The time was shortly before noon, and Jablonski asked to put off testing until the following Monday because he had an appointment to keep. Wilm persuaded him to do a quick hardness test before leaving. Results were...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... material is removed from a surface during abrasion. It is usually expressed in terms of the thickness removed per unit of time or distance traversed. abrasive. A substance capable of removing material from another substance in machining, abrasion, or polishing that usually takes the form of several small...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
..., which might not be sealants. The relative surface areas of anodic and cathodic surfaces should not be underestimated, because instances of corrosion failure can result from a combination of galvanic and crevice attack. Corrosion in a small anodic zone can be several hundred times greater than...