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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
.... The error sum of squares represents the total variability of individual values from their respective group means, and it is a reference point for the randomness due to normal statistical variation. The failure analysis team calculates the total sum of squares by finding the difference between each data...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... of the microstructure. While certain stereological relationships depend on the shape or the size and shape of the features, many of the most important relationships are independent of the size and shape as long as the sectioning plane intersects the structure at random. As with any new body of knowledge, there has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... and of random sequence. An essential element in fatigue life and crack growth life prediction is accurate interpretation of the load spectrum. Spectrum editing involves four elements: Deterministic arrangement of load sequences Realization of load characteristics Spectrum simplification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... of randomness about the mean. However, if the failure analysis team had a resistor with a resistance of 62 Ω, the preceding formula indicates that the percentage of values expected to occur this far away from the standard deviation is extremely small (approximately 0.0004). In that case, the team could...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... systematic (as opposed to random) data, a set of experiments may be planned where parameters of interest are varied over specified ranges. However, the complexity of such an experimental matrix may be onerous, and such an exercise will often be prohibitive in both cost and time, motivating the modification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... pressure, the heat absorbed or given off is given by the change in H . When dealing with condensed phases (solids or liquids), the term PV is usually very small in comparison to E , and therefore H ≈ E . Finally, the entropy, S , is a measure of the randomness of the system. A system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... is implicit that the data analyzed are random; that is, the data tend to scatter around some average value. The pattern of variation or frequency distribution typically found when data are taken from some natural or artificial process is called a normal distribution. When plotted on a graph of frequency...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Effect of fiber length on tensile strength. Source: Ref 1 The fiber length and orientation obtained in a discontinuous-fiber composite are dependent on both the material selected and the manufacturing process used to produce the part. For most processes the fiber orientation is random...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... are equivalent to maps, and tables of diffusion coefficients are like train or bus timetables. Both are the indispensable manuals of people who participate in materials science. 6.1 Brownian Motion and Diffusion 6.1.1 Random Walk Model The botanist R. Brown in Britain discovered that pollen floating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... ratios. Continuous-fiber composites normally have a preferred orientation, while discontinuous fibers generally have a random orientation. Examples of continuous reinforcements include unidirectional, woven cloth, and helical winding ( Fig. 1.1a ), while examples of discontinuous reinforcements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... - N ) behavior of 400 specimens of EN-24 steel tested near the endurance limit. Source: Ref 5 Heterogeneities inherent in the microstructure of most materials result in a random field of defects whose geometry, size, and orientation are also random. Such a random field of defects, influenced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... correspond to the three states of matter: vapor, liquid, and solid. The interpretation of equilibrium diagrams is made easy by the following rule: Only points in the diagram have physical significance. Because the variables are temperature and pressure, evidently a point is determined by a temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of the finished part does not warrant inspection of every part. Quality control measures often include the ultrasonic inspection of random samples from a particular forging. This provides the necessary assurance that the process is under control and that variables affecting internal quality have not been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... that the manufacturing process be controlled within established limits. The different stages are: Identifying important process variables Measuring these variables using accurate instrumentation Monitoring the variability of process elements and documenting Controlling the process to prevent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and Grain Size Measurements: 75 Years of Progress, ASTM Stand. News , 1991 , available at http://www.metallography.com/grain.htm (accessed November 20, 2015) 15. Klansky J. , Grain Size Measurement—Variables to Consider , Microsc. Microanal. , Vol 8 , Suppl 2 , 2002 , p 348 – 49...
Book Chapter

By M. B. Kasen
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... of the reinforcing fiber over a mandrel to form a filament-wound structure. A third construction method, in which continuous or discontinuous fibers of random orientation reinforce molded plastic structures, has aroused interest because of its lower cost. Conventional sand-and-gravel concretes are the only aggregate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., in which the part is subjected to random loads during service, often referred to as spectrum loading . Fig. 14.10 Typical fatigue loading cycles A fluctuating stress is made up of two components, a mean or steady stress σ m and an alternating or variable stress σ a . The stress range σ r...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... (cyclic and applied) are tensile (greater than zero), but it is also possible to test with both stresses in compression. In addition, the maximum and minimum stresses in the cycle do not necessarily have to be equal in value. The last type of loading cycle is the random or irregular stress cycle, in which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... is typically not a major variable). In a typical binary phase diagram temperature is listed on the vertical axis, and chemical composition is on the horizontal axis. For a given temperature and chemical composition, the phase diagram shows what phase or phases are present in the alloy under conditions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...., Pergamon Press , London Powder metallurgical techniques for beryllium were first developed in 1946. Currently, powder metallurgy is the main processing route to produce beryllium components. The vacuum hot pressing method results in a fine-grained, machinable form of the material. The random...