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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Abstract This chapter describes the mechanical properties of fully pearlitic microstructures and their suitability for wire and rail applications. It begins by describing the ever-increasing demands placed on rail steels and the manufacturing methods that have been developed in response...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 15.32 Fatigue failure of a rail. Initiation close to rail head. Courtesy of MRS Logística S.A., RJ, Brazil. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.6 Transverse cross section of a forged rail axis. Segregated regions originated from the “A” segregates in the original ingot can be seen (in the transverse section they appear as dark “dots”). The outer region (around 30 mm, or 1.2 in.) is homogeneous, and there are practically More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.7 Transverse cross section of a forged rail axis. The segregated areas originated from the “A” segregates are less pronounced than in Fig. 11.6 . These comparisons can only be performed if the parts are prepared and etched in exactly the same conditions. Etchant: hot hydrochloric acid More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.8 Longitudinal cross section of a forged rail axis in the region where there is a transition in axis diameter (the wheel would be assembled in the region shown in the lower part of the figure). Large dendrites only lightly altered by deformation can be seen. This indicates More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.9 Transverse cross section of the forged rail axis shown in Fig. 11.8 . Dendritic structure with little segregation in central region (compare with Fig. 11.6 and 11.7 , and consider the axis diameters). Etchant: iodine. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 15.33 Transverse cross section on a hyper-eutectoid rail with approximate hardness of HB 400. The rail was hot rolled, but some residues of the dendritic structure are still visible. The transverse cross section (as discussed in Chapter 12, “Mechanical Work of Steels: Cold Working More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 15.34 Transverse cross section close to the head of the rail shown in Fig. 15.33 . Fine pearlite and absence of pro-eutectoid constituents. (a) Etchant: nital + picral (1:1) (with 0.5 g benzalkonium chloride) (b) Etchant: Marshall (Part I: 8 g oxalic acid + 5 ml sulfuric acid + 100 ml More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 15.35 Transverse cross section at the center of the web of the rail in Fig. 15.32 . Fine pearlite, absence of pro-eutectoid constituents. Nonmetallic inclusions aligned according to deformation direction. Etchant: Marshall. Metallography by I. C. Abud, INT, Brazil. Courtesy of MRS More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 15.37 Sulfur prints of transverse cross sections of rails. Modern rail steels have chemical compositions and sulfur levels that give little information in sulfur prints. Print (a) corresponds to the macrograph of Fig. 15.36(b) . Print (b) corresponds to the macrograph of Fig. 15.36(c More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 15.1 Pearlitic microstructure in rail steel. Nital-etched surface, high resolution SEM micrograph, 8,000×. Courtesy EVRAZ NA More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 15.3 Hardness as a function of pearlite interlamellar spacing for various rail steels. Source: Ref 15.11 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 15.4 Wear rate as a function of pearlite interlamellar spacing for various rail steels at contact pressures of 1220 N/mm 2 and 900 N/mm 2 . Source: Ref 15.11 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 15.5 Wear rate as a function of hardness for various rail steels tested at contact pressures of 1220 N/mm 2 and 700 N/mm 2 . Source: Ref 15.11 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 15.6 Hardness as a function of location in a transverse section of rail subjected to offline head hardening heat treatment. Source: Ref 15.12 More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 1.4 Micrograph of ASTM A 1 rail steel showing the fully pearlitic microstructure. Etched in 4% picral. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.55 Microstructure of a “wheel burn” condition on a railroad rail (eutectoid steel) showing the surface “white layer” and other layers. These layers are shown at higher magnification in Fig. 3.56 . 2% nital etch. 32× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.56 Microstructure of the various layers of the rail steel in Fig. 3.55 . (a) The white layer at the surface (unattacked by the etchant), (b) tempered plate martensite, (c) as-quenched plate martensite and pearlite (dark), and (d) pearlite base microstructure. 4% picral etch. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 4.5 Microstructure of a fully pearlitic steel rail. 4% picral etch. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 4.6 A SEM micrograph of a fully pearlitic microstructure of a steel rail. 4% picral etch. 10,000× More