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radiation gaging

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... advantages for improved contrast on low atomic number materials, discrimination between isotopes, or inspection of radioactive specimens. electromagnetic radiation gamma ray radiography neutron radiography radiation gaging real-time inspection X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY is a nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... intensifier, the radiographic process is termed real-time inspection . When electronic, nonimaging instruments are used to measure the intensity of radiation, the process is termed radiation gaging . Tomography, a radiation inspection method adapted from the medical computerized axial tomography CAT scanner...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... condition, although a good weld surface does not necessarily indicate a defect-free weld. Mechanical gages are available for measuring such dimensions as the height of the weld bead, the depth of the undercut, and the weld size ( Fig. 1 ). When surfaces are not accessible, it may be possible to use...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... if such dimensions are biased within the tolerance band. Techniques in this area include standard measuring equipment, optical comparators, coordinate-measuring machines, surface-finish gages, scales, and torque wrenches. Nondestructive test approaches for evaluating internal component positions and relationships...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... detect subsurface cracks, depending on their size, shape, and proximity to the surface. Although the orientation of a crack with respect to the direction of the radiation beam is the dominant factor in determining the ability of radiography to detect the crack, differences in composition between the base...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... the deformation in the gage length of the specimen plus elastic deflections in components such as the machine frame, load cell, grips, and specimen ends. Before yielding, the gage length deformation is a small fraction of the crosshead displacement. Fig. 7 Schematic illustrating crosshead displacement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
..., and the difference in gage length between a laboratory tensile-test specimen of an optical fiber and a transatlantic communication cable, both may be on the order of 10 6 . Because testing of actual components in these and other cases is clearly impractical, accurate and conservative techniques for predicting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
...-room-temperature environments are obtained with three basic chamber designs: a conventional refrigeration chamber; a thermally insulated box-container, or a cryostat designed for cryogenic temperatures with vacuum insulation; and thermal radiation shielding. Conventional refrigeration covers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... in the furnace. If the workpieces are small and the thermocouple is contained in a heavy gage protection tube, the thermocouple temperature will lag behind the actual work temperature, and workpieces will be overheated when they are initially brought up to control temperature. Temperature Measurement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... and piezoelectric force sensors are the most commonly used force-monitoring devices. Load Cells A load cell is a force transducer that converts force into an electric signal. Although there are different types of load cells, strain-gage-based load cells ( Fig. 15.1 ) are the most commonly used type. Strain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... does not coincide exactly with the specimen temperature because (a) heat is conducted away from the junction by the thermocouple wires, and (b) the junction resides above the specimen surface and radiates heat at a rate higher than that of the specimen itself. Consequently, the thermocouple junction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... heating include the following: A device or method for measuring workpiece temperature. This often consists of an instrument to be given a direct indication of surface or subsurface temperature (e.g., a thermocouple or radiation pyrometer). It can also consist of some indirect measurement that can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of light causing the Airy disk is a factor limiting the resolution of a well-corrected optical system. alignment. A mechanical or electrical adjustment of the components of an optical device so that the path of the radiating beam coincides with the optical axis or other predetermined path in the system...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... with cast iron test plates have proved promising. Methods for Dimensional Inspection A number of techniques are used to determine the dimensional accuracy of castings. These include manual checks with micrometers, manual and automatic gages, coordinate measuring machines, and three-dimensional...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... are unique because it has a low atomic mass, a low x-ray absorption cross section, and a high neutron scattering cross section. With its low mass x-ray absorption coefficient, one of the earliest uses of beryllium was for radiation windows in diagnostic x-ray equipment. As early as 1951, beryllium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... particle inspection can also detect subsurface cracks, depending on their size, shape, and proximity to the surface. Although the orientation of a crack with respect to the direction of the radiation beam is the dominant factor in determining the ability of radiography to detect the crack, differences...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... (Eq 7.2) RA = A 0 − A f A 0 Because an appreciable fraction of the plastic deformation will be concentrated in the necked region of the tensile specimen, the value of e f will depend on the gage length, L 0 , over which the measurement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... and international standards for inspection exist. Mostly penetration is normal to surface, thus cracks parallel to the surface not easy to detect. Radiation safety precautions must be observed. Specialized equipment and storage facilities (for γ-ray sources) required. Upper temperature limit for use is about 50 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... the coil and the electrical resistivity and relative magnetic permeability of the workpiece; it is very useful in gaging the ability to induction heat various materials as well. The definition of d is: d = 3160 ⁢   ρ / μ f ⁢   ( English units ) or d = 5000 ⁢   ρ...