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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The decomposition of austenite, during controlled cooling or quenching, produces a wide variety of microstructures in response to such factors as steel composition, temperature of transformation, and cooling rate. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the isothermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in the heat treatment of steel, namely austenitizing, hardening, quenching, and tempering. It begins with an overview of austenitizing of steels by induction heating, followed by a discussion on the processes involved in transformation of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract Heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This includes various methods namely, annealing, normalizing, and hardening by quenching and tempering. This chapter focuses on general heat treatment procedures and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the fundamental material- and process-related parameters of quenching on residual stress, distortion control, and cracking. It begins with a description of phase transformations during heating and quenching of steel. This is followed by a section on...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Quenching is a critical step in the production of hardened steel. This chapter untangles some of the complexities of the quenching process and its effect on the microstructure and properties of various steels. Making extensive use of cooling curves, it sheds light on the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... induction heating and quenching, the use of magnetic flux concentrators to improve the efficiency of surface heating, and the quenching systems used for induction hardening. The discussion also provides information on time-temperature dependence in induction heating, workpiece distortion in induction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter introduces the principal heat treating processes, namely normalizing, annealing, stress relieving, surface hardening, quenching, and tempering. An overview of four of the more popular surface hardening treatments, namely carburizing, carbonitriding, nitriding, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... relieving, annealing, normalizing, surface hardening, quenching, martempering, austempering, and flame and induction hardening. annealing austempering carbon equivalent ductile cast iron flame hardening gray cast iron induction hardening malleable cast iron martempering normalizing quenching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The hardenability of steel is governed almost entirely by the chemical composition (carbon and alloy content) at the austenitizing temperature and the austenite grain size at the moment of quenching. This article introduces the methods to evaluate hardenability and the factors that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract This chapter addresses the concept of hardenability by first describing the basic hardening process for steel, starting with austenitization followed by quenching and tempering. The context also serves to clarify the difference between hardenability and hardness, which are often...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Most quenched steels are tempered because the toughness of as-quenched steels is generally very poor. The tempering operation sacrifices strength for improvements in ductility and toughness. This chapter discusses the tempering process, the challenge of tempered martensite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... disadvantages of furnaces classified based on the heat transfer medium employed. The types of furnaces covered are batch-type, continuous-type, liquid bath, fluidized bed, and vacuum. The subsequent sections provide information on furnace parts, fixtures, quenching mediums, and quenching systems. The final...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... various steels respond to heat treatments, such as annealing, normalizing, spheroidizing, tempering, and direct and interrupted quenching, and surface-hardening processes, such as flame and induction hardening, carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding. It also addresses the issue of temper embrittlement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. This is followed by discussions on annealing processes, namely subcritical annealing, critical-range annealing, full annealing, isothermal annealing, annealing for microstructure, and solution or quench annealing. Next, the chapter describes two undesirable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... steels, providing information on hardening, transformation of austenite, hardenability testing, and tempering of as-quenched martensite. austenite transformation automobile industry chromium steels hardenability testing hardening nickel steels nickel-chromium alloy steels tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., dimensional stability, and generation of quenching and grinding cracks. They also include insufficient case hardness and improper core hardness, influence of surface carbon content and grain size, internal oxidation, structure of carbides, and inclusion of noncarbide. Details on micropitting, macropitting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... the processes involved in post-casting operations, namely de-coring and de-gating. The key design aspects for consideration in water quenching during the T6 heat treatment are reviewed. The chapter also provides information on two critical cycle events important in engineering at the manufacturing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... production of hypo- and hypereutectoid steels and the effect of cooling rate on microstructure. It also examines quenched steels and the phase transformations associated with rapid cooling. It describes the development of lath and plate martensite, retained austenite, and bainite and how to identify the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract The first step in the hardening of steel is getting it hot enough to form austenite, from which martensite can form upon quenching. Not all steels have the same austenitization requirements, however. High-carbon wear-resistant steels, such as bearing and tool steels, require the...