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quenched and tempered microstructures

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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 9.37 Microstructure of quenched and tempered low-alloy UNS G43400 steel showing a mixture of bainite (dark etching constituent) and martensite (lighter gray). 4% picral + 2% nital etch. Original magnification 500× More
Image
Published: 01 December 1995
Fig. 24-68 (a) The martensitic microstructure at the surface of a quenched and tempered Ni-Cr-Mo (cast 8635) 17 in. (432 mm) thick gear blank, (b) The acicular, ferrite-pearlite structure of the casting in A—at the center of the 17 in. (432 mm) thick section Representative Properties More
Image
Published: 01 August 2015
Fig. 9.14 (Part 3) Micrographs of cracks. (h) SAE 8630 steel as quenched; microstructure is martensite where cracking initiated from rolling seam. (i) SAE type 403 stainless steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is predominantly tempered martensite with cracking promoted by the seam More
Image
Published: 30 April 2024
Fig. 11.4 Micrographs of cracks after heat treatment caused either by sharp radii or related machining problems. (a) 4140 steel as-quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench crack at area of dimensional change. 2% nital etch. Original magnification: 100×. (b More
Image
Published: 01 August 2015
Fig. 9.14 (Part 1) Micrographs of cracks. (a) SAE 4140 steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench crack at area of dimensional change. 2% nital. 100×. (b) SAE 4142H steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench crack More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... martensite designates low-temperature-tempered martensite Finally a section at the end of this chapter briefly summarizes all of the microstructural components that are present in quenched and tempered martensitic carbon steels and their contributions to strength and mechanical behavior as affected...
Image
Published: 01 August 2015
Fig. 9.14 (Part 2) Micrographs of cracks. (e) SAE 4140 steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench cracking promoted by nonmetallic inclusions. Unetched. 100×. (f) SAE 1144 steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite where More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... Abstract Martensitic steels are produced by quenching carbon steel from the austenite phase into martensite. This chapter provides information on the composition, microstructures, processing, deformation mechanisms, mechanical properties, hot forming, tempering, and special attributes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
...) and spheroidized carbides (white). No retained austenite was resolvable in the light microscope. In contrast, the microstructure of a specimen quenched from an austenitizing temperature of 855 °C (855 °F) consisted of coarse plates of tempered martensite (dark) and retained austenite (white) ( Fig. 7-3b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
...—Automotive malleable iron castings Grade Brinell hardness number Heat treatment Microstructure Applications M3210 156 max Annealed Ferritic Good machinability, mounting brackets M4504 163–217 Air quench and temper Ferritic and tempered pearlite Compressor crankshaft, hubs M5003...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Most steels that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering. Tempering improves the toughness of as-quenched martensitic microstructures but lowers strength and hardness. This chapter describes the microstructural changes that occur during tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... the microstructure of an O1 tool steel austenitized at 815 °C (1500 °F), oil quenched, and tempered at 220 °C (430 °F) to produce a hardness of 58.5 HRC. Spheroidized carbides (white), retained as a result of intercritical austenitizing, are dispersed in a dark-etching matrix of tempered martensite. This matrix...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.2 (Part 2) Structural steel subjected to heat treatment at 625 °C (1155 °F) for different times. (c) Specified strength of 690 MPa (100 ksi), produced using quenching and tempering heat treatment (see the sections “ Quenching and Tempering ” and “ Tempering ” in this chapter More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... quenching and tempering heat treatment (see the sections “ Quenching and Tempering ” and “ Tempering ” in this chapter) with a starting microstructure of tempered martensite, acicular ferrite, and carbides (cementite). The prior austenitic grain boundaries are clearly visible after etching. There is some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...: Ref 4 Fig. 9.14 (Part 1) Micrographs of cracks. (a) SAE 4140 steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench crack at area of dimensional change. 2% nital. 100×. (b) SAE 4142H steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench...
Image
Published: 01 November 2012
Fig. 16 Examples of quench cracks. (a) Micrograph of AISI 4340 quenched and tempered steel illustrating a macroetched pure quench crack. (b) Micrograph of AISI 4142 steel as-quenched and tempered. The microstructure is tempered martensite with quench cracking at the fillet radius. Original More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Concepts,” in this book. These steels are selected based on their hardenability and are normally used in the quenched and tempered condition. In this condition, with microstructures mostly composed of tempered martensite, the most relevant differences in the microstructure are caused by carbon content...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., formability, and machinability. This chapter discusses various heat treatment processes, namely annealing, stress relieving, normalizing, spheroidizing, and hardening by austenitizing, quenching and tempering. It also discusses two types of interrupted quenching processes: martempering and austempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... of tempered martensite and retained austenite, which is difficult to etch because of the high chromium content and, even if etched, is too fine to be resolved in the light microscope. Fig. 12-2 As-quenched, hardened microstructure of high-carbon, high-chromium D-type tool steel. Light micrograph, 100x...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract Induction hardened steels are often tempered to increase their ductility and relieve quenching stresses. During tempering, martensitic microstructures supersaturated with carbon decompose into a more stable, ductile form. This chapter discusses the transformations associated...